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18
Wednesday
 
  Outfoxing the Foxes 智取狐狸
by Paul Hines
Man's best friend is now penguins' best friend.
人類最好的朋友現在也是企鵝最好的朋友。


  When Australia was colonized, early settlers took many different types of plants and animals there. These were used to establish farms, which were essential for the survival of the young colony. Unfortunately, many animals that were introduced escaped from captivity and had no natural predators. The plants also flourished at the expense of the native flora.
  Foxes in particular have wreaked havoc around the country. Modern farmers protect their livestock by using fox-proof fences and sheepdogs. Nevertheless, over six million foxes kill millions of native animals annually. Off the southern Australian coast, only a few hundred meters from the mainland, is a tiny island called Middle Island. Until the early 1990s, the only inhabitants were a flock of seagulls and a colony of penguins. That was until some foxes began making their way over to the island on a sandbar that occasionally appears. The foxes soon started to wipe out the penguins. The locals were shocked to discover that in one massacre alone, the foxes had killed 360 penguins. By 2006, only four penguins remained.
  Then, a local farmer hit upon the idea of using sheepdogs to protect what remained of the colony. Several sheepdogs were introduced to the penguins and soon became protective of their new friends. Sheepdogs bark at anything that approaches the penguins to warn them of danger, and consequently the population has rebounded back to around 150.
  The sheepdogs of Middle Island are truly appreciated by the locals. Eudy and Tula, two of the original sheepdogs, have now reached retirement age, so a crowdfunding campaign is underway to purchase and train two new sheepdogs. Also, look out for a movie called Oddball, which tells the story of how a remote country town and their sheepdogs outfoxed some foxes.

1. What reason is given for the introduction of foreign species to Australia?
(A) To colonize the country.
(B) To maintain the harmony of all species.
(C) To establish farms.
(D) To destroy native flora and fauna.
2. According to the article, which animals currently inhabit Middle Island?
(A) Seagulls, penguins, foxes and sheepdogs.
(B) Seagulls, penguins, and sheepdogs.
(C) Foxes, penguins, and sheepdogs.
(D) Seagulls, penguins, and foxes.
3. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true?
(A) Foxes have wiped out the penguins on Middle Island.
(B) Sheepdogs have been successful in protecting the penguins.
(C) The penguin population has returned to the same level it was before foxes reached the island.
(D) There is a small town named Middle Island.
4. Why has a crowdfunding campaign been established?
(A) To pay for Eudy and Tula's retirement.
(B) To find replacements for Eudy and Tula.
(C) To fund a movie called Oddball.
(D) To pay a farmer for an idea.

片與小舖
  1. be essential for...  對……至關重要
    Proper nutrition is essential for patients if they want to have a quick recovery.
    適當的營養對於希望早日康復的病患來說是很重要的。
    *nutrition n. 營養(不可數)
  2. wreak havoc (on...)  對……造成嚴重破壞
    wreak vt.(對某事物)造成騷亂
    havoc n. 大破壞;浩劫
    The severe storms have wreaked havoc on the crops.
    這場嚴重的暴風雨對農作物造成巨大災害。
  3. a flock of...  一群(羊、飛禽等)
    This morning, a flock of birds sat on a fence as if they had been waiting for a bus.
    今早一群鳥停在一堵圍牆上,彷彿在等公車的樣子。
  4. wipe out...  徹底消滅∕毀滅……
    The health organization is launching a worldwide campaign to wipe out malaria in South Asia.
    該醫療組織正發起一場全球性的活動以消滅東南亞的瘧疾。
    *malaria n. 瘧疾
  5. hit upon / on...  突然想到……(主意等)
    Roger hit upon a great new idea for promoting the company's products.
    羅傑突然想到一個很棒的新點子來促銷公司的產品。
  6. become / be protective of...  保護……
    The young couple is very protective of their child, which could make him a mama's boy.
    這對年輕夫婦相當保護他們的小孩,這可能會讓他變成媽寶。
  7. warn sb of sth  警告∕提醒某人某事
    衍: warn sb against...  警告∕提醒某人不要……
    The secretary warned the president of the possibility of revolution.
    該部長提醒那名總統有革命的可能性。
    The doctor warned Mr. Heller against the dangers of overeating.
    該醫生提醒海勒先生飲食過量的危險性。


Grammar Tips


The plants also flourished at the expense of the native flora.
注意
at the expense of...  以……為代價,犧牲……
同: at the cost of...
= at the sacrifice of...
It's unwise of anyone to achieve something at the expense of his or her health.
任何人想有所成就卻犧牲健康的做法很不明智。
Peter worked hard to build up his company at the cost of the relationship with his family.
彼得拚命努力創立公司,卻犧牲了他與家人的關係。
The country's economy is quickly developing. However, this has happened at the sacrifice of the citizens' freedoms.
該國的經濟快速發展。然而,這卻是以犧牲市民的自由來達成的。

精解字詞
  1. outfox vt. 智取,以機智勝過
    同: outsmart vt.
    The older kids outfoxed the young ones when they were playing poker.
    玩撲克牌時,年長的小孩以機智勝過了年幼的小孩。
  2. colonize vt. 開拓殖民地
    The British first colonized Australia in the 18th century.
    英國首先在十八世紀開拓澳洲殖民地。
  3. colony n. 殖民地;群體
    衍: colonist n. 開拓殖民地者
    Vietnam used to be a colony, but now it is a sovereign country.
    越南過去為殖民地,但現在是個主權國家。
    *sovereign a. 主權獨立的
    There is a seal colony on that island.
    那座島上有一群海豹寄居。
    New Orleans was established by colonists from France.
    紐奧良是由來自法國的殖民者所建立的。
  4. captivity n. 拘禁,囚禁
    衍: be held in captivity  監禁
    The girl felt pity for the animals in captivity at the zoo.
    那女孩對被關在那間動物園裡的動物非常同情。
    Those hostages who were held in captivity ended up being executed by the terrorists.
    那些被監禁的人質最終還是被恐怖份子處死了。
  5. flourish vi. 茁壯成長;興旺,繁榮
    同: thrive vi.
    The cactus is one of the few plants that can flourish in the desert.
    仙人掌是少數可以在這座沙漠中茁壯成長的植物。
  6. inhabitant n. 居民
    衍: inhabit vt.(動物或人)居住於(某地)
    Our family lineage can be traced back to the early inhabitants of this island.
    我們家族世系可以追溯到這座島上的早期居民。
    *lineage n. 世系,血統,家系
    No human beings, not even animals, can inhabit that contaminated area.
    不只是人,甚至連動物都無法住在那片被汙染的地區。
    *contaminated a. 受汙染的
  7. occasionally adv. 偶爾,偶然
    同: on occasion
    Taking a few hours off work occasionally is a
    nice way to break up the monotony of everyday life.
    偶爾請假數小時不上班是個中止日常生活單調乏味的好方法。
    *monotony n. 單調乏味,千篇一律
  8. consequently adv. 因此,所以
    Nancy was consequently fined for walking her dog on the lawn.
    南西在草坪上蹓狗,因此遭到罰款。
  9. rebound vi. 回升,反彈
    衍: rebound on / upon sb
    使某人自食惡果,自作自受
    Gold prices rebounded today after last week's losses.
    金價自上星期下跌之後,在今天出現了回升。
    Linda's selfish behavior will rebound on her sooner or later.
    琳達的自私行為早晚會得到報應的。
  10. underway a. 在進行中的
    An investigation is underway to find out how the tragedy happened.
    調查已經展開,以查明這樁悲劇是如何發生的。
  11. harmony n. 和諧,融洽相處
    In order to improve work efficiency, all the staff members should work in harmony.
    為了提升工作效率,所有的員工都該和諧共事。

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單字小舖


flora n. (某一地點或時期的)植物群
衍: fauna n. (某一地點或時期的)動物群
sheepdog n. 牧羊犬
seagull n. 海鷗
sandbar n. (尤指河口的)沙洲,沙堤
massacre n. 大屠殺 & vt.(大規模地)屠殺,殺戮
crowdfunding n. 群眾募資
衍: crowdfund vt. 群眾募資
(群眾募資是指群眾透過一個平臺,以小額資金贊助或支持某些人提出的企劃)

中文翻譯&標準答案


智取狐狸

人類最好的朋友現在也是企鵝最好的朋友。

  澳洲被殖民時,早期移民者把許多不同種類的動植物引入了當地。人們利用這些動植物來建立農場,而這些農場對新殖民地的生存不可或缺。不幸的是,許多被引進的動物逃離了圈養環境且沒有天敵。而那些植物的繁衍旺盛也損害了原生植物群。

  尤其是狐狸,牠們已在全國各地造成嚴重破壞。現代農民藉由採用防狐狸柵欄和牧羊犬來保護他們的牲畜。不過每年仍有六百多萬隻狐狸捕殺數百萬隻原生動物。距離澳洲本土南方沿海僅數百公尺處有一座稱為中央島的小島。1990 年代初期以前,島上唯一的棲居動物是一群海鷗和企鵝。直到一些狐狸開始在偶爾浮現的沙洲上取道前往該島嶼後情況才變了樣。狐狸很快便開始獵殺企鵝。當地居民愕然發現,在單一一次的殘殺當中,狐狸竟已殺害了三百六十隻企鵝。到了 2006 年,僅有四隻企鵝存活下來。

  之後,一名當地農夫突然想到利用牧羊犬來保護僅存企鵝群的主意。數隻牧羊犬被引領到企鵝群之中且迅速成為保護牠們的新朋友。牧羊犬會對任何靠近企鵝的東西吠叫以示警,因此目前企鵝總數已回升到大約一百五十隻了。

  當地居民真誠感激中央島上的牧羊犬。約迪和圖拉這兩隻元老級的牧羊犬已到達退休年紀,因此民眾正著手進行一項群眾募資的活動以購買並訓練兩隻新的牧羊犬。另外,你還可以留意一部名為《企鵝守護者:勇敢的牧羊犬》(暫譯)的電影,該電影即在敘述一座偏遠的鄉村小鎮和他們自家牧羊犬如何智取狐狸的故事。

1. 文中所提出引進外來物種到澳洲的理由為何?
(A) 為了殖民該國。
(B) 為了維持所有物種的和諧。
(C) 為了建立農場。
(D) 為了催毀當地的動植物群。
題解:根據本文第一段,人們利用這些動植物來建立農場,而這些農場對新殖民地的生存不可或缺,故 (C) 項應為正選。

2. 根據本文,哪一種動物目前棲居在中央島上?
(A) 海鷗、企鵝、狐狸和牧羊犬。
(B) 海鷗、企鵝和牧羊犬。
(C) 狐狸、企鵝和牧羊犬。
(D) 海鷗、企鵝和狐狸。
題解:根據本文第二段,1990 年代初期以前,島上唯一的棲居動物是一群海鷗和企鵝。直到一些狐狸開始在偶爾浮現的沙洲上取道前往該島嶼後情況才變了樣;而第三段提及數隻牧羊犬被引領到企鵝群之中且迅速成為保護牠們的新朋友,故 (A) 項應為正選。

3. 根據本文,下列哪一項敘述是正確的?
(A) 狐狸已把中央島上的企鵝滅絕了。
(B) 牧羊犬已成功保護了那些企鵝。
(C) 企鵝的總數已回升到狐狸登島前的相同數量。
(D) 有一個稱作中央島的小鎮。
題解:根據本文第三段,牧羊犬會對任何靠近企鵝的東西吠叫以示警,因此目前企鵝總數已回升到大約一百五十隻了,故 (B) 項應為正選。

4. 為什麼創立群眾募資的活動?
(A) 為了支付約迪和圖拉的退休生活。
(B) 為了找尋約迪和圖拉的替補。
(C) 為了資助一部名為《企鵝守護者:勇敢的牧羊犬》(暫譯)的電影。
(D) 為了向一名農夫花錢買點子。
題解:根據本文最後一段,約迪和圖拉這兩隻元老級的牧羊犬已到達退休年紀,因此民眾正著手進行一項群眾募資的活動以購買並訓練兩隻新的牧羊犬,故 (B) 項應為正選。

答案: 1. C 2. A 3. B 4. B







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