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  The Safe Delivery App: Hope for Ethiopian Mothers  衣索比亞媽咪好『孕』到
by Ivy Liu
A phone app has the potential to lower the rate of maternal mortality.
一款手機應用程式可望降低孕產婦死亡率。

(右鍵可另存)

  Imagine being a health worker in a clinic located in rural Ethiopia. You are all alone when, all of a sudden, a man rushes in with his heavily pregnant wife, who is in labor. _(1)_ Imagine feeling utterly helpless as your lack of training and practical experience prevents you from saving her. Though the maternal mortality rate in the world has decreased by 45% since 1990, 800 women still die every single day from pregnancy- and childbirth-related issues, mostly in developing countries. _(2)_ The most enraging fact is that 90% of these deaths are preventable under the care of a midwife who has had proper training.
  In Ethiopia, 85% of women give birth at home with the help of friends and family who have little or no medical experience. _(3)_ As a result, the maternal death rate in Ethiopia is one of the highest in the world, where an average of 420 deaths per 100,000 occurs. _(4)_
  In response to this alarming maternal death rate, a Danish organization called the Maternity Foundation has developed a new mobile app that could help dramatically lower that number. The Safe Delivery App helps to give crucial instructions during life-threatening emergencies to birth attendants at the touch of a button. _(5)_ Testing in Ethiopia began in 2014 as 78 phones with the app were given to midwives in the small town of Gimbie. It is hoped that the app will soon be deployed in other countries in need of it.

(A) With informative and animated graphics, the app is able to teach these attendants how to manage deliveries, especially when something goes wrong.
(B) Many complications can arise during childbirth, like hemorrhaging, obstetric fistula, and more, endangering a woman's life.
(C) Though she delivers the baby quickly, she starts bleeding severely.
(D) Compared to the rate of 239 or so in developing countries and 12 in developed countries, it is a major cause for concern.
(E) Ethiopia is one of the few remaining countries where mobile telecoms remain a government-run monopoly.
(F) A trip to the hospital is thought only necessary in the event of serious complications.



原來如此
  1. 第一題空格應選 (C)
    理由:
    a. 空格前一句提及 "You are all alone when, all of a sudden, a man rushes in with his heavily pregnant wife, who is in labor."(當時你獨自一人,突然間一名男子帶著他那挺著大肚子即將臨盆的太太衝了進來。),而 (C) 項的句子提及"Though she delivers the baby quickly, she starts bleeding severely."(雖然她很快就生下寶寶,卻開始嚴重出血。),前一句的 in labor (即將臨盆)與 (C) 項的 delivers the baby(生下寶寶)互相呼應;且 (C) 項代名詞 she(她)即指空格前一句的 his heavily pregnant wife (他那挺著大肚子的太太),故形成關聯。
    b. 根據上述,(C) 項應為正選。
    大補丸:
    bleed vi. 流血(三態為:bleed, bled, bled。)
    衍: bleed like a stuck pig  (喻)流很多血
    The criminal fell down on his back after being shot by police, bleeding like a stuck pig.
    該名罪犯被警方射擊後仰天倒地,流了很多血。
  2. 第二題空格應選 (B)
    理由:
    a. 空格前一句提及 "... 800 women still die every single day from pregnancy- and childbirth-related issues, mostly in developing countries."(……不過每天仍有八百名女性死於和妊娠與分娩相關的問題,大多數是發生於開發中國家。),而 (B) 項的句子提及 "Many complications can arise during childbirth..."(在分娩的過程中可能會產生許多併發症……),前一句的 childbirth-related(分娩相關的)與 (B) 項的 childbirth(分娩)互相呼應,故形成關聯。
    b. 根據上述,(B) 項應為正選。
    大補丸:
    a. complication n. 併發症
    Leo developed complications after his heart transplant surgery.
    里歐在心臟移植手術過後產生了併發症。
    b. hemorrhage vi. & n. 出血
    c. obstetric fistula  生產性廔管
    obstetric a. 生產性的
    fistula n. 廔管(體表上皮細胞與內臟或深層組織之間形成的病理性管道)
  3. 第三題空格應選 (F)
    理由:
    a. 空格前一句提及 "In Ethiopia, 85% of women give birth at home with the help of friends and family who have little or no medical experience."(在衣索比亞,85% 的婦女是在幾乎沒有醫療經驗、或完全沒有任何醫療經驗的朋友或家人幫助之下在家生產。),而 (F) 項的句子提及 "A trip to the hospital is thought only necessary in the event of serious complications."(只有在出現嚴重的併發症時,他們才認為有必要去一趟醫院。),前一句的 home(家)與 (F) 項的 hospital(醫院)形成對比,故形成關聯。
    b. 根據上述,(F) 項應為正選。
    大補丸:
    in the event of...  萬一……,倘若……
    同: in case of...
    In the event of an earthquake, don't use the elevator.
    萬一發生地震,別搭乘電梯。
  4. 第四題空格應選 (D)
    理由:
    a. 空格前一句提及 "... where an average of 420 deaths per 100,000 occurs."(……當地平均每十萬人就有四百二十人死亡。),而 (D) 項的句子提及 "Compared to the rate of 239 or so in developing countries and 12 in developed countries, it is a major cause for concern."(與開發中國家大約兩百三十九人及已開發國家的十二人相比,這是個相當令人擔憂的狀況。),前一句的 420 deaths(四百二十人死亡)與 (D) 項的 239(兩百三十九人)及 12(十二人)互相呼應,故形成關聯。
    b. 根據上述,(D) 項應為正選。
    大補丸:
    a cause for concern  引起憂心的原因
    The economic state of the United States is a serious cause for concern.
    美國的經濟狀況是讓人非常憂心的原因。
  5. 第五題空格應選 (A)
    理由:
    a. 空格前一句提及 "The Safe Delivery App helps to give crucial instructions during life-threatening emergencies to birth attendants at the touch of a button."(助產人員只需按個按鍵,順產 App 就能在發生危及生命的緊急狀況時協助給予關鍵指令。),而 (A) 項的句子提到 "... the app is able to teach these attendants how to manage deliveries, especially when something goes wrong."(……該應用程式能夠教導這些助產人員如何接生,特別是當出了什麼差錯時。),前後兩句以 attendants(助產人員)一字互相呼應,故形成關聯。
    b. 根據上述,(A) 項應為正選。
    大補丸:
    informative a. 富知識性的
    I found this book not only fun but informative as well.
    我發現這本書不僅有趣,也饒富教育性。

精解字詞
  1. outfox vt. 智取,以機智勝過
    同: outsmart vt.
    The older kids outfoxed the young ones when they were playing poker.
    玩撲克牌時,年長的小孩以機智勝過了年幼的小孩。
  2. colonize vt. 開拓殖民地
    The British first colonized Australia in the 18th century.
    英國首先在十八世紀開拓澳洲殖民地。
  3. colony n. 殖民地;群體
    衍: colonist n. 開拓殖民地者
    Vietnam used to be a colony, but now it is a sovereign country.
    越南過去為殖民地,但現在是個主權國家。
    *sovereign a. 主權獨立的
    There is a seal colony on that island.
    那座島上有一群海豹寄居。
    New Orleans was established by colonists from France.
    紐奧良是由來自法國的殖民者所建立的。
  4. captivity n. 拘禁,囚禁
    衍: be held in captivity  監禁
    The girl felt pity for the animals in captivity at the zoo.
    那女孩對被關在那間動物園裡的動物非常同情。
    Those hostages who were held in captivity ended up being executed by the terrorists.
    那些被監禁的人質最終還是被恐怖份子處死了。
  5. flourish vi. 茁壯成長;興旺,繁榮
    同: thrive vi.
    The cactus is one of the few plants that can flourish in the desert.
    仙人掌是少數可以在這座沙漠中茁壯成長的植物。
  6. inhabitant n. 居民
    衍: inhabit vt.(動物或人)居住於(某地)
    Our family lineage can be traced back to the early inhabitants of this island.
    我們家族世系可以追溯到這座島上的早期居民。
    *lineage n. 世系,血統,家系
    No human beings, not even animals, can inhabit that contaminated area.
    不只是人,甚至連動物都無法住在那片被汙染的地區。
    *contaminated a. 受汙染的
  7. occasionally adv. 偶爾,偶然
    同: on occasion
    Taking a few hours off work occasionally is a
    nice way to break up the monotony of everyday life.
    偶爾請假數小時不上班是個中止日常生活單調乏味的好方法。
    *monotony n. 單調乏味,千篇一律
  8. consequently adv. 因此,所以
    Nancy was consequently fined for walking her dog on the lawn.
    南西在草坪上蹓狗,因此遭到罰款。
  9. rebound vi. 回升,反彈
    衍: rebound on / upon sb
    使某人自食惡果,自作自受
    Gold prices rebounded today after last week's losses.
    金價自上星期下跌之後,在今天出現了回升。
    Linda's selfish behavior will rebound on her sooner or later.
    琳達的自私行為早晚會得到報應的。
  10. underway a. 在進行中的
    An investigation is underway to find out how the tragedy happened.
    調查已經展開,以查明這樁悲劇是如何發生的。
  11. harmony n. 和諧,融洽相處
    In order to improve work efficiency, all the staff members should work in harmony.
    為了提升工作效率,所有的員工都該和諧共事。

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單字小舖

maternal a. 母親的
衍: paternal a. 父親一方的;父親的
midwife n. 助產士
birth attendant  接生人員
attendant n. 服務人員

片語小舖
  1. be in labor  臨盆,分娩
    The woman was in labor for exactly two hours.
    這名婦女分娩的過程整整有兩個鐘頭。
  2. under the care of...  在……的照顧下
    I had a happy childhood under the loving care of my parents.
    在我父母慈愛的撫育下,我有個幸福的童年。
  3. give birth  生產
    同: deliver a baby
    Miles couldn't endure the pain of watching his wife give birth.
    邁爾斯無法忍受看他妻子生產時的痛苦。
    *endure vt. 忍受

中文翻譯&標準答案


衣索比亞媽咪好『孕』到
一款手機應用程式可望降低孕產婦死亡率。

  想像你是一位在衣索比亞鄉間診所裡的醫護人員。當時你獨自一人,突然間一名男子帶著他那挺著大肚子即將臨盆的太太衝了進來。雖然她很快就生下寶寶,卻開始嚴重出血。想像你因為缺乏訓練與實務經驗而無法拯救她時,感到徹底無助的樣子。儘管全球孕產婦死亡率從 1990 年起已降低了 45%,不過每天仍有八百名女性死於和妊娠與分娩相關的問題,大多數是發生於開發中國家。在分娩的過程中可能會產生許多併發症,像是大量出血、生產性廔管(編按:生產性廔管是指在生產過程中,由於生產時間過長,造成產婦在產道及泌尿道或腸道間出現破洞,形成一條非常態性通道。患有生產性廔管的婦女會出現大小便失禁的症狀,因而在生活中造成諸多不便。)及其他許多病症,進而危及婦女性命。最令人氣憤的是,在受過適當訓練的助產士照顧之下,90% 的死亡案例都是可以避免的。

  在衣索比亞,85% 的婦女是在幾乎沒有醫療經驗、或完全沒有任何醫療經驗的朋友或家人幫助之下在家生產。只有在出現嚴重的併發症時,他們才認為有必要去一趟醫院。因此,衣索比亞是全球孕產婦死亡率最高的國家之一,當地平均每十萬人就有四百二十人死亡。與開發中國家大約兩百三十九人及已開發國家的十二人相比,這是個相當令人擔憂的狀況。

  為了因應這令人恐慌的孕產婦死亡率,一個名為孕產婦基金會的丹麥組織已開發出一個能有助於大大降低死亡率的新款應用程式。助產人員只需按個按鍵,順產 App 就能在發生危及生命的緊急狀況時協助給予關鍵指令。該應用程式附有教育性的動畫圖片,能夠教導這些助產人員如何接生,特別是當出了什麼差錯時。2014 年,該應用程式在衣索比亞展開測試,當時有七十八支裝有這款應用程式的手機分發給金比小鎮裡的助產士。希望這款應用程式將會儘快被分配到其他也有需求的國家。

答案: 1. C 2. B 3. F 4. D 5. A








































































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