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12
Wednesday
  Courthouse Dogs 法庭上的守護天使
by Daniel Howard
Sometimes justice needs the kindness only a dog can give.
有時正義所需要的仁慈只有狗狗能給予。

(右鍵可另存)

  Dogs have a very special relationship with people. Research has shown that having dogs around can help people manage stress and improve their mood. These loving animals already appear in hospitals to help the sick feel more comfortable, and now they are being brought into courts of law to help the truth get out.
  Courthouse Dogs is a program across the United States that provides specially trained dogs for people while they are speaking in a court of law. It is stressful for anyone to be interrogated by lawyers in front of so many people. Sensitive people, like the victims of violent crimes and young children, can find it very difficult to answer questions. These people can now ask for dogs to sit with them to help them feel calm and safe while answering questions.
  Not just any dog can be a courtroom dog, however. These are trained facility dogs that can stay calm and quiet even in stressful situations. Some witnesses and victims can get very upset when in court, and children in particular tend to cry and move around a lot under pressure. Ordinary dogs might be frightened and run away, growl, or even bite. For this reason, all courthouse facility dogs must be certified to handle these situations.
  Unfortunately, not everyone is a fan of these dogs. Some lawyers are afraid that the dogs might inappropriately distract people in the court. Other people are worried that the cute dogs will make certain people more likable to the jury. Rules have been put in place to prevent dogs from disrupting the legal system, though. Thus, it seems that these facility dogs will continue to serve as a calming addition to courthouses in a positive manner by helping nervous people speak in stressful situations.

1. What has research shown about being near dogs?
(A) They make people tell the truth more.
(B) People have fewer dog allergies after being around them.
(C) Dogs help reduce stress and make people happier.
(D) Most people prefer dogs to cats.
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2. What is NOT true about the Courthouse Dogs program?
(A) It is only available in one city at the moment.
(B) It provides special training for the facility dogs.
(C) People can request dogs to sit with them in court.
(D) Children may use the service to stay calm.
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3. Why are only trained and certified dogs used as facility dogs?
(A) Facility dogs need to be able to answer questions.
(B) Regular dogs can be frightened by upset people.
(C) People are easily distracted by regular dogs.
(D) Old dogs can't learn new tricks.
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4. What problem do some lawyers have with facility dogs in courts of law?
(A) Dogs can be dangerous if not properly trained.
(B) Some criminals may harm the animals.
(C) People in court may focus more on the dog.
(D) Training facility dogs would be too expensive.


片語小舖
  1. in particular  特別是;尤其
    同: particularly adv.
    = especially adv.
    注意 in particular、particularly 與 especially 均為強調名詞的副詞,前者置名詞後作後位修飾,後兩者則置名詞或代名詞之前。
    Vivian is afraid of cockroaches, those that can fly in particular.
    = Vivian is afraid of cockroaches, particularly / especially those that can fly.
    薇薇安很怕蟑螂,尤其是會飛的那種。
  2. be a fan of...  喜歡……;是……的迷
    David is a big fan of that soccer team and never misses any of their games.
    大衛是那支足球隊的超級粉絲,他從未錯過他們任何一場比賽。
  3. put... in place  制定……;實施……
    Some new rules regarding uniforms were put in place last year.
    去年實施了一些有關制服的新規定。
  4. serve as...  作為……之用;充當……
    同: act as...
    These old newspapers can serve as lining for the birdcage.
    這些舊報紙可以拿來墊鳥籠。
    *lining n. 襯墊;(衣服的)襯裡
  5. in a... manner  以……的方式
    Viola conducted the meeting in a very professional manner.
    薇奧拉以十分專業的方式主持此次會議。
  6. prefer A to B  喜歡 A 甚於 B
    (此處 to 是介詞,之後可置名詞或動名詞作其受詞)
    Dennis prefers going to the movies to watching videos at home.
    丹尼斯喜歡去戲院看電影甚於在家看錄影帶。
  7. Old dogs can't learn new tricks.  
    老狗學不了新把戲。── 諺語
    (喻人的思維僵化,很難接受新知)
Grammar Tips

Sensitive people, like the victims of violent crimes and young children, can find it very difficult to answer questions.

注意
victim n. 受害者(可數名詞)
衍: fall victim to...  成為……的受害者(此片語中的 victim 恆為單數,之前亦不加任何冠詞)
The boy was a victim of violence at school.
該男童在學校是暴力的受害者。
Many teenagers have fallen victim to drugs, so their families send them to rehab.
許多青少年受毒品所害,所以他們的家人將他們送去勒戒所。
*rehab n. 勒戒所

Some witnesses and victims can get very upset when in court, and children in particular tend to cry and move around a lot under pressure.

注意
witness n. 目擊者(與介詞 to 並用)& vt. 目擊
衍: bear witness to...  為……作證
Tom is the only witness to the murder.
湯姆是該凶殺案唯一的證人。
Theodore's gentle manner and politeness bear witness to his fine upbringing.
喜爾多的溫文有禮證明他很有教養。
*upbringing n. 教養,管教
Kate witnessed a terrible car accident and had nightmares for a month.
凱特目擊一起嚴重的車禍,連做了一個月的惡夢。

精解字詞
  1. courthouse n. 法院
  2. manage vt. 掌理,控制
    To improve your efficiency, you have to learn how to manage your time.
    要提高效率,你得先學會時間管理。
  3. mood n. 心情
    衍: be in a good / bad mood  心情好∕壞
    = be in high / low spirits
    Don't bother Zach because he is in a bad mood now.
    不要去打擾查克,因為他現在心情不好。
  4. sensitive a. 敏感的
    衍: be sensitive to...  對……敏感
    Be careful about what you say to Paige ─ she is sensitive to criticism.
    你對佩姬說話要小心 ── 她對批評很敏感。
    *criticism n. 批評
  5. a facility dog  設施犬(即法庭犬)
    衍: facility n. 設施
  6. certify vt. 認證
    This diploma certifies that Eleanor has finished high school.
    這份文憑證明艾莉諾已完成高中學業。
    *diploma n. 畢業文憑
  7. handle vt. 處理,應付
    同: deal with...
    = cope with...
    Noah finds it difficult to handle the stress at his new job.
    諾亞發現他很難應付新工作帶來的壓力。
  8. inappropriately adv. 不適當地
    反: appropriately adv. 適當地
    Quoting an article in your blog inappropriately can be viewed as a form of plagiarism.
    在部落格中不當引用一篇文章可能被視為一種剽竊的形式。
    *plagiarism n. 剽竊
    You should have behaved more appropriately at the party last night.
    你昨晚在派對中的舉止應該更得體才對。
  9. distract vt. 使分心
    衍: distract sb from N/V-ing  使某人從??分心
    A beautiful woman distracted the construction workers from their work.
    一位美女使建築工人分心而無法專心工作。
  10. disrupt vt. 使混亂,擾亂
    The typhoon disrupted all flights into and out of the airport for the past two days.
    該颱風在過去兩天以來使進出該機場的班機大為混亂。
  11. allergy n. 過敏,過敏反應
    衍: allergic a. 過敏的
    be allergic to...  對……過敏
    The dust in the air triggered Ethan's allergies.
    空氣中的灰塵引發伊森過敏。
    *trigger vt. 引起
    Becky loves dogs, but she can't have one because she is allergic to their fur.
    貝琪雖然愛狗但卻不能養,因為她對狗毛過敏。
  12. request vt. 要求
    The students requested an extra day to finish their book reports.
    學生們要求多一天的時間讓他們完成讀書心得。
  13. criminal n. 罪犯

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單字小舖

justice n. 正義
interrogate vt. 審問,質問
衍: interrogation n. 訊問,審問
growl vi. & n.(狗生氣時的)低吼
likable a. 令人喜歡的
addition n. 附加物(與介詞 to 並用)

中文翻譯&標準答案


法庭上的守護天使
有時正義所需要的仁慈只有狗狗能給予。

  狗兒和人類之間有種很特別的關係。研究顯示,有狗狗在身邊可以幫助人們處理壓力並改善他們的情緒。這些可愛的動物已經出現在醫院裡幫助病患感到舒緩,而現在牠們正被帶進法庭,以幫助真相水落石出。
  法庭犬是一個遍及美國的計劃,當人們要在法庭上發言時,該計劃為他們提供經過特別訓練的狗狗。對任何人來說,要在許多人面前被律師審問都是很有壓力的。像是暴力罪行受害者及年幼小孩等較為敏感的人可能會發現要回答問題相當困難。這些人如今可以要求狗狗在他們回答問題時待在他們身邊來幫助他們心情平靜並感到安全。
  然而,並非任何一隻狗都可以成為法庭犬。這些經過訓練的設施犬即便是在充滿壓力的情況下都能保持冷靜與安靜。有些目擊者與受害者在法庭上時可能會變得極為沮喪,而特別是小孩在承受許多壓力之下往往會哭泣並到處走動。一般的狗狗可能會感到害怕並跑走、咆哮或甚至咬人。因此,所有的法庭設施犬都必須經過認證以處理這些情況。
  不幸的是,不是每個人都喜歡這些狗狗。有些律師擔心這些狗狗在法庭上可能會不當地使人們分心。其他人則擔心這些狗狗會讓陪審團比較喜歡某些人。不過,已經設立了規定以防止這些狗狗妨礙司法系統。因此,看起來這些設施犬會藉由幫助緊張的人們在充滿壓力的情況下發言,而繼續正面地作為法庭上安定人心的附加物。

1. 研究顯示有狗狗在身邊會如何?
(A) 牠們會幫助人們更能說出真相。
(B) 在與牠們相處之後,人們對狗狗過敏的情況就減少了。
(C) 狗狗有助於減輕壓力並使人們更快樂。
(D) 許多人較喜歡狗甚於貓。
題解:根據本文第一段,研究顯示,有狗狗在身邊可以幫助人們處理壓力並改善他們的情緒,故 (C) 項應為正選。

2. 關於法庭犬計劃,哪一項是錯誤的?
(A) 它目前只在一個城市中實行。
(B) 它為設施犬提供特別訓練。
(C) 人們可以要求狗狗在法庭上與他們同坐。
(D) 孩童可以使用這項服務來保持冷靜。
題解:根據本文第二段,法庭犬是一個遍及美國的計劃,與 (A) 項敘述不符,故為正選。

3. 為什麼只有受過訓練與認證的狗狗能夠作為設施犬?
(A) 設施犬必須要能夠回答問題。
(B) 一般的狗狗會因為人們情緒激動而感到害怕。
(C) 人們容易被一般的狗狗分散注意力。
(D) 老狗變不出新把戲。
題解:根據本文第三段,有些目擊者與受害者在法庭上時可能會變得極為沮喪,而特別是小孩在承受許多壓力之下往往會哭泣並到處走動。一般的狗狗可能會感到害怕並跑走、咆哮或甚至咬人,故 (B) 項應為正選。

4. 有些律師對於法庭上設有設施犬有什麼意見?
(A) 如果狗狗未經訓練,牠們可能有危險性。
(B) 有些罪犯可能會傷害這些動物。
(C) 法庭上的人們可能會更加注意狗狗。
(D) 訓練設施犬將會太昂貴。
題解:根據本文最後一段,有些律師擔心這些狗狗在法庭上可能會不當地使人們分心,故 (C) 項應為正選。

答案:1. C 2. A 3. B 4. C































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