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16
Wednesday
 
  Going Head-to-Head 美式足球球員的腦部衝擊
by Daniel Howard
Professional football players are hurting their brains in the sport they love.
職業足球球員正逐漸在他們所喜愛的運動中傷害自己的大腦。


  American football is a dangerous game. It is a full-contact sport, so it is common for players to twist joints, break bones, bleed internally, and hit their heads. Doctors have begun to think that the sport is just too dangerous, especially in regard to head injuries.
  In a recent study, 165 people who played football at the high school, college or professional level donated their brains to science after they died. Of these people, nearly 80 percent showed signs of long-term brain damage. Among former professional football players, 96 percent showed signs of brain damage. Many donors had shown symptoms of brain damage before they died, however, so the results of the study could be higher than the actual number of people who might have gotten brain damage from playing football. Still, many football players develop problems with memory loss, depression, and dementia when they get older. Suicide is a major problem among retired football players as well.
  Despite the overwhelming evidence that football is causing serious brain injuries, it is still a controversial issue. Football is a significant part of American culture, and the sport is important to many people. It is big business: the total value of the National Football League (NFL) and all of its teams is around US$45 billion. Football scholarships offer thousands of students free university tuition each year, and anyone good enough to play professionally can make millions of US dollars a year. For many people, the rewards might seem worth the risks, but for others, the long-term risks exceed the temporary rewards. Nowadays, fewer parents are enrolling their children in football in favor of less dangerous sports. Others are pushing for rule changes to prevent so many injuries. American football isn't likely to disappear, but the rules will probably change to make the game safer in the years to come.

1. Which type of football injury worries doctors the most?
(A) Twisted joints.
(B) Broken bones.
(C) Internal bleeding.
(D) Head injuries.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. How many professional football players showed signs of brain damage?
(A) All of them.
(B) 165 of them.
(C) 96 percent of them.
(D) 80 percent of them.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Why might the study show higher rates of brain damage?
(A) Donors already had some symptoms before they died.
(B) It only studied professional players.
(C) Doctors wanted to prove the danger.
(D) All the donors played football for a long time.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. How are most parents responding to the dangers of football?
(A) They are finding better sports doctors.
(B) They are enrolling children in less dangerous sports.
(C) They are making their children wear more protective gear.
(D) They are having their children stay home.



Grammar Tips

Doctors have begun to think that the sport is just too dangerous, especially in regard to head injuries.
注意
in regard to...  關於
同: with regard to...
regard vt. 把……視為(與介詞 as 並用)& n. 問候(恆用複數)
regard A as B  將 A 視為 B
In regard to your request for a refund, we have referred the matter to our manager.
關於閣下請求退款之事,我們已經轉請經理處理。
Give my best regards to your parents.
請代我向你的父母致問候之意。
We can all regard Adam's success as reflection of his dedication to his studies.
我們可將亞當的成功視為其用心向學的成果。
It is big business: the total value of the National Football League (NFL) and all of its teams is around US$45 billion.
注意
business n. 生意(不可數); 事業(可數)
Business has been very good recently.
最近的生意很好。
Starting a business isn't all that difficult. It all boils down to money.
創業沒有那麼困難。歸結就是資金的問題而已。
*boil down to...  歸結為……

精解字詞
  1. twist vt. 扭(曲∕彎);扭轉;曲解 & n.(形勢或事情的)意外轉折
    衍: twist the truth  扭曲真相
    Dan twisted his ankle while climbing the tree behind my house.
    阿丹在爬我家後面的樹時扭到了腳踝。
    The movie ended with a dramatic twist with the police officer turning out to be the killer.
    電影結尾出現戲劇性的轉折,那名員警竟然就是兇手。
    The president angered the voters by spreading rumors and twisting the truth.
    總統因散佈謠言和扭曲事實而激起選民的憤怒。
  2. bleed vi. 流血(三態為:bleed, bled, bled。)
    衍: bleed like a stuck pig  大量出血
    After the explosion, many people lay on the floor bleeding.
    爆炸發生之後,許多人都流著血躺在地板上。
    The criminal fell down on his back after being shot, bleeding like a stuck pig.
    該名罪犯中彈後仰天倒地,並大量出血。
  3. internally adv. 內在地;內部地
    反: externally adv. 外在地;外部地
    The man was bleeding internally from the accident.
    該男子因這場意外而內出血。
    The girl may seem cold externally, but deep down she is a nice person.
    這女孩外表看似冷酷,但其實內心是個好人。
  4. donate vt. 捐贈
    Aaron can't donate bone marrow to Sophie because their types aren't compatible.
    艾倫不能捐骨髓給蘇菲,因為類型不相容。
    *marrow n. 髓
  5. damage n. 損害(不可數);賠償金(法律用語,恆用複數)
    Drinking too much alcohol is bound to cause liver damage.
    喝太多酒鐵定會傷肝。
    *be bound to V  必定會……
    The court awarded David US$1 million in damages.
    法院判給大衛一百萬美元的損害賠償金。
  6. symptom n. 症狀
    Coughing, sneezing, and having a runny nose are symptoms of a bad cold.
    咳嗽、打噴涕和流鼻水都是重感冒的症狀。
  7. suicide n. 自殺
    Will was undoubtedly out of his mind when he tried to commit suicide.
    威爾無疑是昏了頭才會試圖自殺。
    *commit vt. 犯(罪)
  8. overwhelming a. 壓倒性的
    An overwhelming majority of the staff members were opposed to the new regulation.
    絕大多數的職員都反對這項新規定。
  9. controversial a. 有爭議性的
    Capital punishment is a controversial issue in many countries.
    在許多國家中,死刑是一項具爭議性的議題。
    *capital punishment  死刑
  10. tuition n. 學費
  11. reward n. 獎勵;報酬 & vt. 獎勵
    Wright was given a reward for helping the police solve the crime.
    萊特因幫助警方破案而獲得一筆酬勞。
  12. exceed vt. 超出∕過
    Make sure our expenditure on research doesn't exceed our budget.
    要確保我們的研究開銷不得超過預算。
    *expenditure n. 支出,費用

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單字小舖

full-contact a. 全接觸性的
joint n. 關節
dementia n. 失智症
scholarship n. 獎學金;學識(不可數)
gear n. 裝備(不可數);齒輪(可數)

片語小舖
  1. head-to-head  正面交鋒
    衍: go head to head (with...)  (與某人)正面交鋒
    Bill won a head-to-head election with 80 percent of total votes cast.
    比爾在這場正面交鋒的選戰中贏得了百分之八十的總投票數。
    Luke went head to head with his long-time rival for the manager position.
    路克和他的宿敵相互競爭以角逐經理的職位。
  2. show signs of...  顯示……的跡象
    Tina let the horse run at full speed until it began to show signs of fatigue.
    提娜讓這匹馬全速奔馳,直到牠顯示出疲憊的跡象。
    *fatigue n. 疲倦
  3. enroll sb in...  替(某人)報名……
    When I was young, my parents enrolled me in a swimming class.
    我年幼的時候,父母替我報名了游泳課。
  4. in favor of...  贊成∕支持……
    Few parents are in favor of the recent changes to the education system.
    贊成最近教育制度改革的家長寥寥可數。
  5. push for...  力圖爭取……
    The president will have a meeting with members of Congress to push for an increase of the minimum wage.
    該總統將與國會議員召開會議以推動提高基本工資。
  6. 一段時間 + to come  在未來……時間
    Although he passed away, the King of Pop will be remembered for years to come.
    儘管那位流行樂之王已逝世,但他在往後的歲月裡都將為世人緬懷。

中文翻譯&標準答案

美式足球球員的腦部衝擊
職業足球球員正逐漸在他們所喜愛的運動中傷害自己的大腦。
  美式足球是一項危險的競賽。它是一項全接觸性的運動,所以對球員來說,關節扭傷、骨折、內出血和頭部遭受撞擊都是很稀鬆平常的事情。特別在頭部受創方面,醫生們已開始思考這項運動根本是危險過頭了。
  在一項近期的研究報告中,有一百六十五名曾打過高中、大學或者職業美式足球的球員在死後捐出他們的大腦以供科學研究。這些人當中,有將近八成的人顯示出腦部長期受損的跡象。在前職業美式足球員中,九成六的人顯示出腦部損傷的徵兆。然而,許多捐贈者在生前就已經有腦部受損的症狀,因此比起打美式足球而可能患有腦部損傷的實際人數,此研究結果可能會更高。再者,許多美式足球員在上了年紀時便會出現記憶力衰退、憂鬱症和失智症的問題。而在退休美式足球員中,自殺也是一個主要問題。
  縱使這壓倒性的證據顯示美式足球會導致嚴重的腦部受損,這仍然是一項具有爭議性的議題。美式足球是美國文化中重要的一環,而且此項運動對許多人而言非常重要。這項運動商機龐大:國家美式足球聯盟(NFL)與其隊伍的總價值約四百五十億美元。美式足球獎學金每年提供數千位學生免費大學學費,而任何優異的球員若能打職業比賽還能一年賺進數百萬美元。對許多人來說,這種回報看起來似乎值得冒險,不過對其他人來說,這種長期風險超越了報酬。現今,替自家孩子報名參加美式足球的家長更少了,他們轉而支持危險性較低的運動。還有人則努力推動改變規則以防止這麼多的傷害。美式足球不太可能會消失,但比賽規則在往後的幾年可能會變動以使此項運動變得更加安全。

1. 美式足球的哪一種傷害讓醫生最為擔心?
(A) 關節扭傷。
(B) 骨折。
(C) 內出血。
(D) 腦部損傷。
題解:根據本文第一段,特別在頭部受創方面,醫生們已開始思考這項運動根本是危險過頭了,故 (D) 項應為正選。
2. 有多少職業美式足球員有腦部損傷的徵兆?
(A) 全部皆有。
(B) 當中的一百六十五人。
(C) 當中九成六的人。
(D) 當中八成的人。
題解:根據本文第二段,在前職業美式足球員中,九成六的人顯示出腦部損傷的徵兆,故 (C) 項應為正選。
3. 為什麼該研究報告可能會顯示出較高的腦部損傷比例?
(A) 捐贈者在生前已有些徵兆了。
(B) 它只研究職業球員的狀況。
(C) 醫生想要證明它的危險性。
(D) 全部的捐贈者皆打了很長時間的美式足球。
題解:根據本文第二段,許多捐贈者在生前就已經有腦部受損的症狀,因此比起打美式足球而可能患有腦部損傷的實際人數,此研究結果可能會更高,故 (A) 項應為正選。
4. 大多數的家長對美式足球所帶來的危險如何反應?
(A) 他們正找尋更好的運動醫生。
(B) 他們替孩子報名危險性較低的運動。
(C) 他們讓孩子穿上更有保護性的裝備。
(D) 他們讓孩子待在家裡。
題解:根據本文第三段,現今,替自家孩子報名參加美式足球的家長更少了,他們轉而支持危險性較低的運動,故 (B) 項應為正選。

答案: 1. D 2. C 3. A 4. B

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