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27
Wednesday
 
  Prisoners vs Harvard: Prisoners Win! 受刑人大勝哈佛冠軍辯論隊
by Daniel Howard
One program is making prisoners model citizens.
有一項計劃正將受刑人打造為模範公民。


  Prison is considered a punishment for breaking the law, but instead it should be an opportunity for people who committed crimes to become productive members of society again. _(1)_ To prevent this problem, the Bard Prison Initiative was created.
  Bard College in New York offers prison inmates a chance to earn a degree. Currently, there are around 300 people enrolled in this challenging program. Why is it challenging? As criminals in prison, the students have scarce resources. They are not allowed access to the Internet. _(2)_ Also, not all inmates who apply to the program are accepted. Maybe because of these challenges, however, the program is very successful. In most of New York, 40% of prisoners return to jail within three years. _(3)_ What's more, the Bard Prison Initiative debate team recently beat one of the best debate teams in the world, the Harvard College Debating Union.
  _(4)_ They had to argue whether or not children who are not American citizens should be allowed to go to school. Though the prisoners thought everyone should be allowed to attend school, they had to argue the opposite. However, with preparation and a unique argument, the Bard Prison Initiative students defeated the better-funded, less-restricted Harvard competitors. _(5)_ It shows that anyone can become a better person if they are given the opportunity to excel.

(A) Out of Bard Prison Initiative graduates, only 3% of them return to prison.
(B) Unfortunately, many criminals only know a life of crime, so they tend to return to prison within just a few years after being released.
(C) The victory was great for the three students that won, but it was even better for all the prisoners who want a second chance at life.
(D) The right of self-defense is only available against unlawful attack.
(E) Textbooks, and even library books, are only allowed with permission from the prison guards.
(F) In a public debate, three Bard Prison Initiative students went up against three Harvard students.

原來如此
  1. 第一題空格應選 (B)
    理由:
    a. 空格前一句提及 "Prison is considered a punishment for breaking the law, but instead it should be an opportunity for people who committed crimes to become productive members of society again."(監獄被認為是一種違反法律的懲罰,但它反倒應該是一種機會,讓犯下罪行的人重新成為社會上有用的人。),而 (B) 項的句子提及 "Unfortunately, many criminals only know a life of crime, so they tend to return to prison within just a few years after being released."(可惜的是,許多不法之徒一生只知道犯罪,因此他們往往在獲釋後僅幾年內就又重蹲苦牢。),前後兩句以 prison(監獄)一字形成關聯。
    b. 根據上述,(B) 項應為正選。
    大補丸:
    release vt. & n. 釋放;發行
    The criminal was released from prison after seven years behind bars.
    那名罪犯服刑七年後獲釋。
    *behind bars  在監獄服刑
    Tony's good behavior in prison earned him an early release.
    東尼在獄中的良好表現讓他可以提早出獄。
  2. 第二題空格應選 (E)
    理由:
    a. 空格前一句提及 "They are not allowed access to the Internet."(他們不被允許使用網路。),而 (E) 項的句子提及 "Textbooks, and even library books, are only allowed with permission from the prison guards."(教科書、甚至是圖書館藏書,都只有在獄警的批准下才允許借用。),前後兩句以 allowed(允許)一字形成關聯。
    b. 根據上述,(E) 項應為正選。
    大補丸:
    permission n. 允許,許可
    衍: without permission  未經許可
    My boyfriend accused his brother of borrowing the car without permission.
    我男友指責他弟弟未經許可就借走車子。
  3. 第三題空格應選 (A)
    理由:
    a. 空格前一句提及 "In most of New York, 40% of prisoners return to jail within three years."(在紐約州大部份的地區,有 40% 的受刑人在三年內會重返監獄。),而 (A) 項的句子提及 "Out of Bard Prison Initiative graduates, only 3% of them return to prison."(而出自《巴德監獄倡新》計劃的畢業生,僅有 3% 的受刑人再次入獄。),前後兩句以 return to jail / prison(重返監獄)形成關聯。
    b. 根據上述,(A) 項應為正選。
    大補丸:
    graduate n. 畢業生
    Anny is a graduate of Waseda University.
    安妮是早稻田大學的畢業生。
  4. 第四題空格應選 (F)
    理由:
    a. 空格後一句提及 "They had to argue whether or not children who are not American citizens should be allowed to go to school."(他們必須爭辯非美國公民的孩童是否應當被允許在美國學校就讀。),而 (F) 項的句子提及 "In a public debate, three Bard Prison Initiative students went up against three Harvard students."(在一場公開的辯論賽中,三名《巴德監獄倡新》計劃的學生對上三名哈佛大學的學生。),後一句的 argue(爭辯)一字與 (F) 項句子的 debate(辯論賽)一字互相呼應,故形成關聯。
    b. 根據上述,(F) 項應為正選。
    大補丸:
    go up against...  對上∕對抗……
    We will go up against a lot of opponents in this international competition.
    我們將在這場國際競賽中對上許多的對手。
  5. 第五題空格應選 (C)
    理由:
    a. 空格前一句提及 "However, with preparation and a unique argument, the Bard Prison Initiative students defeated the better-funded, less-restricted Harvard competitors."(然而,憑藉著周全的準備以及一項與眾不同的論點,《巴德監獄倡新》計劃的學生戰勝了有更好資源也較不受限的哈佛對手。),而 (C) 項的句子提到 "The victory was great for the three students that won, but it was even better for all the prisoners who want a second chance at life."(這場勝利對那三名獲勝的學生來說很棒,但這對所有想要在人生中有第二次機會的受刑人而言甚至更為美好。),前一句的 defeat(戰勝)與 (C) 項句子的 won(獲勝)一字互相呼應,故形成關聯。
    b. 根據上述,(C) 項應為正選。


精解字詞
  1. punishment n. 懲罰,處罰
    Gian's punishment for littering was to pick up trash from the streets for eight hours.
    胖虎亂丟垃圾的處罰就是去街上撿八個小時的垃圾。
    *litter vi. 亂丟垃圾
  2. productive a. 有效益的;多產的
    Joyce Carol Oates is an inventive and productive writer.
    喬伊斯‧卡羅爾‧歐茨是個有創造力且多產的作家。
    *inventive a. 有創造力的
  3. degree n. 學位
    衍: a bachelor's / master's / doctoral degree in + 學科
    某一門學科的學士∕碩士∕博士學位
    diploma n. 文憑
  4. access n. 使用;接近 & vt. 使用,取得
    衍: have access to...  能使用∕接近……
    Students in this small village don't have access to computers, let alone the Internet.
    這座小村莊的學生沒有使用電腦的機會,更別說上網了。
    We can access the Internet at Bangkok International Airport through Wi-Fi for an hour.
    我們可以在曼谷國際機場透過 Wi-Fi 使用網路一小時。
  5. debate n. & vt. 辯論,爭論
    A hot debate is going on between the liberals and conservatives over education.
    自由派人士和保守派人士之間正進行一場有關教育的激烈辯論。
    The two teams debated whether cloning should be legalized.
    這兩隊辯論複製生物是否應該合法化。
    *cloning n. 複製;無性生殖
  6. argue vt. 爭論;主張,認為(後接 that 子句)& vi. 爭論,爭執
    衍: argue about / over...  爭論……
    Some people argue that meat is important to our diets, and I agree with this point of view.
    有些人認為肉類對我們的飲食很重要,而我同意這個觀點。
    Will you kids stop arguing about whose dog that is?
    你們這些孩子不要再爭吵那隻狗是誰的了,好嗎?
  7. restricted a. 限定的,限制的
    衍: be restricted to N/V-ing  僅限於……
    Entrance into this fancy social club is restricted to members only.
    這家高檔的社交俱樂部僅限會員進入。
  8. excel vi. 出眾;擅長
    衍: excel in / at...  擅長……
    Sheila excels at organizing events for businesses.
    席拉很擅長為企業規劃活動。

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單字小舖

inmate n.(監獄的)囚犯;(精神病院的)病人
衍: detainee n.(因政治原因)被拘留者
 felon n. 重罪犯

片語小舖
  1. commit a crime  犯罪
    commit vt. 犯(罪)
    If you commit a crime, you'd better be ready to do the time.
    你要是犯法,就要有坐牢的準備。
    *do the time  坐牢
  2. be enrolled in...  報名∕註冊上……(學校、課程)
    同: enroll in...
    Only those who meet the requirements will be allowed to enroll in the class.
    只有那些符合要求的人才能報名該課程。

中文翻譯&標準答案


受刑人大勝哈佛冠軍辯論隊
有一項計劃正將受刑人打造為模範公民。

  監獄被認為是一種違反法律的懲罰,但它反倒應該是一種機會,讓犯下罪行的人重新成為社會上有用的人。可惜的是,許多不法之徒一生只知道犯罪,因此他們往往在獲釋後僅幾年內就又重蹲苦牢。為了避免這項問題,《巴德監獄倡新》計劃便因而誕生。

  紐約州的巴德大學提供獄友一個獲得學位的機會。目前,大約有三百人報名參加這項具有挑戰性的計劃。為什麼這項計劃很有挑戰性呢?身為在獄囚徒,這些學生僅有寥寥無幾的資源。他們不被允許使用網路。教科書、甚至是圖書館藏書,都只有在獄警的批准下才允許借用。另外,並非所有申請參加該項計劃的獄友都會被錄取。然而,或許正是因為這些挑戰,這項計劃非常成功。在紐約州大部份的地區,有 40% 的受刑人在三年內會重返監獄。而出自《巴德監獄倡新》計劃的畢業生,僅有 3% 的受刑人再次入獄。此外,《巴德監獄倡新》的辯論隊最近擊敗了世界上最厲害的辯論隊之一 ── 哈佛大學辯論聯盟。

  在一場公開的辯論賽中,三名《巴德監獄倡新》計劃的學生對上三名哈佛大學的學生。他們必須爭辯非美國公民的孩童是否應當被允許在美國學校(編按:美國公立學校因移民家庭子女數量快速增長多年來在許多州引起眾多爭議,一些納稅人質疑,無證移民的子女是否有權接受公共教育;美國司法部和教育部於 2014 年正式發表聯合聲明,要求全美所有公立學校不得拒絕無證移民學生入學。)就讀。儘管這些受刑人認為人人都應該得以就學,但他們必須持相反的論點來辯論。然而,憑藉著周全的準備以及一項與眾不同的論點,《巴德監獄倡新》計劃的學生戰勝了有更好資源也較不受限的哈佛對手。這場勝利對那三名獲勝的學生來說很棒,但這對所有想要在人生中有第二次機會的受刑人而言甚至更為美好。這說明了只要能被給予出人頭地的機會,任何人都能成為更好的人。

答案: 1. B 2. E 3. A 4. F 5. C






















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