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21
Wednesday
  How to Protect Yourself from the Evil Eye  詭譎!藍色惡魔眼
by Bruce E. Bagnell
Millions of people in many countries use a nazar to keep the evil eye away.
許多國家中數以百萬計的人都使用惡魔之眼來避開惡意的眼光。

(右鍵可另存)

  Superstitions are beliefs unsupportable by science. They usually involve bringing good luck or _(1)_ bad influences. Scandinavians knock on a wooden surface when they wish for something good or want to keep bad luck at bay. South Koreans _(2)_ sleeping in a closed room with a fan on will kill you. The Turks warn each other not to chew gum at night. Why? It will _(3)_ human flesh! Westerners sometimes carry a rabbit's foot for good luck. Asian hotels and hospitals _(4)_ have a 4th floor because "4" in most Chinese dialects sounds similar to the word for "death."
  Central Asians and Middle Easterners are no strangers to superstitions, either. A _(5)_ held belief in this part of the world is the so-called "evil eye." People can look at others in a disapproving, envious, or even _(6)_ way. This negative _(7)_ can produce harm in the form of bad luck, such as injury, ill health, or loss of fortune, according to this superstition. To _(8)_ any negative outcome, for more than 3,000 years, people have made round amulets called "nazar." Made of glass in a _(9)_ shape, these talismans are usually hung as necklaces or carried in wallets but are also found hanging in homes, offices, cars, and even on trees. They _(10)_ concentric blue circles outside and smaller white and yellow circles nearer the middle, in which a black or blue dot, representing an eye, is located. Apparently, the nazar looks back at any evil eye and neutralizes it.
  Though frowned on by Muslim scholars, nazars are found abundantly from Egypt to Iran and from southeast Europe to Afghanistan. It seems superstitious thinking will continue to be with us well into the future.

(A) believe (B) feature (C) prevent (D) warding off (E) energy
(F) hateful (G) turn into (H) commonly (I) circular (J) seldom

原來如此
  1. They usually involve bringing good luck or warding off bad influences.
    它們通常包括帶來好運或是抵擋不好的影響。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有對等連接詞 or,空格後有名詞詞組 bad influences(不好的影響),得知空格應置動名詞或動名詞片語以與前面動名詞片語 bringing good luck(帶來好運)形成對等,共作 involve 的受詞。
    b. 選項中符合上述的僅有 (D) warding off(擋住,避開),置入後亦符合語意,故為正選。
    c. ward off...  避開……,防止……
    Jeff ate a head of cabbage every day in an attempt to ward off cancer.
    傑夫每天吃一顆包心菜來防癌。
  2. South Koreans believe sleeping in a closed room with a fan on will kill you.
    南韓人相信睡在一個開著電扇的密閉房間裡會要了你的命。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有名詞詞組 South Koreans (南韓人)作主詞,空格後有動名詞片語 sleeping in a closed room(睡在密閉房間裡),得知空格應置複數及物動詞或片語動詞,使之後的動名詞片語作其受詞。
    b. 選項中符合上述的有 (A) believe(相信)、(B) feature(以……為特色)、(C) prevent(避免,防止)及 (G) turn into(變成),惟根據語意,(A) 項應為正選。
    c. believe vt. & vi. 相信;信仰,相信……的存在(與介詞 in 並用)
    衍: believe in...  相信……的存在,信仰……
    Do you believe that Jerry is telling the truth?
    你相信傑瑞在說實話嗎?
    Michael doesn't believe in Santa Claus.
    麥可不相信有聖誕老公公的存在。
  3. It will turn into human flesh!
    因為它會變成人肉!
    理由:
    a. 空格前有助動詞 will,空格後有名詞詞組 human flesh(人肉),得知空格應置原形及物動詞或原形片語動詞。
    b. 選項中符合上述的尚有 (B) feature(以……為特色)、(C) prevent(避免,防止)及 (G) turn into(變成),惟根據語意,(G) 項應為正選。
    c. turn into...  變成……
    同: change into...
    Five years have passed, and the little girl I once knew has turned into a beautiful young lady.
    五年過去了,而那個我曾認識的小女孩也變成了一位漂亮的小姐。
  4. Asian hotels and hospitals seldom have a 4th floor because "4" in most Chinese dialects sounds similar to the word for "death."
    亞洲的飯店及醫院很少會有四樓,因為『4』在大多數華人方言裡聽起來跟『死』這個字很像。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有名詞詞組 Asian hotels and hospitals(亞洲的飯店及醫院)作主詞,空格後有及物動詞 have(有),得知空格應置副詞以修飾 have。
    b. 選項中為副詞的有 (H) commonly(一般地,通常)及 (J) seldom(很少,不常),惟根據語意,(J) 項應為正選。
    c. seldom adv. 很少,不常
    Tina seldom has the time to go to the movies, so she rents DVDs instead.
    蒂娜鮮少有時間去看電影,因此她改成去租片子。
  5. A commonly held belief in this part of the world is the so-called "evil eye."
    這個地區的人普遍都相信有所謂的『邪毒眼』存在。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有單數不定冠詞 A,空格後有過去分詞作形容詞用的 held(所抱持著的),得知空格應置副詞以修飾 held。
    b. 選項中為副詞的僅剩 (H) commonly(一般地,通常),置入後亦符合語意,故為正選。
    c. commonly adv. 一般地,通常
    It is commonly believed that most people are good at heart.
    一般相信大多數人都是心存善念。
  6. People can look at others in a disapproving, envious, or even hateful way.
    人們可能以反對、嫉妒或甚至仇恨的方式來瞪視別人。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有副詞 even(甚至),空格後有名詞 way(方式),得知空格應置形容詞以修飾 way。
    b. 選項中為形容詞的有 (F) hateful(仇恨的)及 (I)circular(圓形的),惟根據語意,(F) 項應為正選。
    c. hateful a. 仇恨的,充滿憎恨的
    Terry has become a hateful man ever since the accident.
    泰瑞自那場意外過後,他的心中就充滿了仇恨。
  7. This negative energy can produce harm in the form of bad luck, such as injury, ill health, or loss of fortune, according to this superstition.
    根據該迷信,這種負面能量會以厄運的形式產生傷害,像是讓人受傷、生病或財富損失。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有形容詞 negative(負面的),空格後有助動詞 can,得知空格應置名詞以被 negative 修飾。
    b. 選項中為名詞的有 (B) feature(特色)及 (E) energy(能量),惟根據語意,(E) 項應為正選。
    c. energy n. 能量;能源;體力,精力
    衍: energetic a. 充滿活力的,精力充沛的
    The government is spending a lot of money searching for new energy resources.
    該政府正花費鉅資尋找新能源。
    After taking a nap, Matthew felt energetic again.
    在小睡片刻後,馬修覺得自己又充滿了活力。
  8. To prevent any negative outcome, for more than 3,000 years, people have made round amulets called "nazar."
    為了避免任何負面的結果,三千多年來,人們製作了稱為『惡魔之眼』的圓形護身符。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有引導不定詞片語的 To,空格後有名詞詞組 any negative outcome(任何負面的結果),得知空格應置原形及物動詞或原形片語動詞。
    b. 選項中符合上述的尚有 (B) feature(以……為特色)及 (C) prevent(避免,防止),惟根據語意,(C) 項應為正選。
    c. prevent vt. 預防,防止
    衍: prevent sb/sth from V-ing  防止某人∕某物……
    You should put the meat into the fridge to prevent it from going bad.
    你應該把肉放到冰箱裡以防止它壞掉。
    *fridge n. 冰箱(口語)
    = refrigerator n.
  9. Made of glass in a circular shape, these talismans are usually hung as necklaces or carried in wallets but are also found hanging in homes, offices, cars, and even on trees.
    這些護身符是以玻璃製成的圓形形狀,它們通常會被當作項鍊配戴或是攜帶於錢包中,但在家裡、辦公室裡、車上,甚至在樹上也可以發現它們。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有不定冠詞 a,空格後有名詞 shape(形狀),得知空格應置子音起首的形容詞以修飾 shape。
    b. 選項中符合上述的僅剩 (I) circular(圓形的),置入後亦符合語意,故為正選。
    c. circular a. 圓形的;環形的
    The full moon has a circular shape.
    滿月的形狀是圓的。
  10. They feature concentric blue circles outside and smaller white and yellow circles nearer the middle, in which a black or blue dot, representing an eye, is located.
    它們的特色是外圈為藍色同心圓,而比較靠近中心則是較小的白黃色相間同心圓,中心有一個黑色或藍色的點,代表眼睛。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有代名詞 They(它們),空格後有名詞詞組 concentric blue circles(藍色同心圓),得知空格應置及物動詞。
    b. 選項中符合上述的僅剩 (B) feature(以……為特色),置入後亦符合語意,故為正選。
    c. feature vt. 以……為主要特色
    The magazine features the latest fashion trends.
    這本雜誌主打最新的流行時尚趨勢。

精解字詞
  1. superstition n. 迷信
    衍: superstitious a. 迷信的
    An Irish superstition says that you will have seven years of bad luck if you break a mirror.
    古老的愛爾蘭迷信有此說法:你若打破了鏡子就會有七年的壞運。
    According to my superstitious mother, I shouldn't go swimming during Ghost Month.
    根據我那迷信老媽的說法,在農曆鬼月期間我不應該去游泳。
  2. surface n. 表面
  3. chew vt. & vi. 咀嚼
    衍: chew on...  咀嚼……;仔細考慮……
    Todd tends to chew on his pencil when he's nervous.
    陶德緊張時往往會咬鉛筆。
    About your proposal, the board needs more time to chew on it.
    關於你的提案,董事會需要多點時間考慮。
  4. so-called a. 所謂的
  5. disapproving a. 反對的
    衍: disapprove vt. 駁回 & vi. 反對
    disapprove of sth  反對某事
    The teacher disapproved the students' plan for a party.
    老師駁回學生們的舞會計劃。
    My parents strongly disapproved of my going out with that girl.
    我爸媽強烈反對我和那個女孩外出約會。
  6. outcome n. 結果,結局
  7. hang vt. & vi.(懸)掛(三態為:hang, hung, hung。)
    注意:hang 作及物動詞時,亦可表『吊死』,三態則為:hang, hanged, hanged。
    Dad hung his coat in the closet as soon as he came home.
    老爸一到家就把外衣掛到衣櫥裡。
    Bats sometimes hang from tree branches.
    蝙蝠有時會倒吊在樹枝上。
    In the past, criminals were hanged in public.
    在以前,罪犯都會在眾人面前被吊死。
  8. concentric a. 同中心的
  9. apparently adv. 顯然地
    同: obviously adv.
    Apparently, Tom was upset that his friends went fishing without him.
    湯姆顯然很生氣,因為他的朋友們拋下他、逕自跑去釣魚。
  10. abundantly adv. 大量地
    衍: abundant a. 大量的;充足的
    be abundant with...  有大量的……;充滿……
    Watermelons grow abundantly in this region.
    這個地區盛產西瓜。
    This lake is abundant with carp and trout.
    這座湖裡有很多鯉魚和鱒魚。
    *carp n. 鯉魚
    trout n. 鱒魚

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單字小舖

unsupportable a. 不支持的
Scandinavian n. & a. 斯堪地納維亞人(的)
Turk n. 土耳其人
flesh n.(人的)肉
dialect n. 方言
amulet n. 護身符
talisman n. 護身符
neutralize vt. 使抵銷,使緩和

片語小舖
  1. keep... away  避開……
  2. keep... at bay  遠離……;使……無法接近
    To keep disease at bay, we should not only change our eating habits but also our lifestyle.
    為了遠離疾病,我們不僅應改變飲食習慣,也應改變生活方式。
  3. be no stranger to...  對……不陌生∕司空見慣
    Lisa is no stranger to hard times because she came from a life of poverty.
    麗莎出身清寒,所以對苦日子早已司空見慣。
    *poverty n. 貧窮,貧困
  4. in the form of...  以……的形式
    同: in the shape of...
    Lydia received a gift in the form of a lottery ticket.
    莉迪亞收到一張樂透彩券作為禮物。
  5. frown on / upon sth  不認同某事
    衍: frown at sb  對某人皺眉頭(表示不以為然或不悅)
    My father frowned upon my decision to drop out of school.
    我爸爸反對我休學的決定。
    The professor frowned at me when my phone rang during his lecture.
    我的手機在課堂上響起時,教授對我皺了皺眉頭。

中文翻譯&標準答案


詭譎!藍色惡魔眼


許多國家中數以百萬計的人都使用惡魔之眼來避開惡意的眼光。

   迷信是一種不受科學支持的信念。它們通常包括帶來好運或是抵擋不好的影響。北歐人希望好事發生或是遠離厄運時,他們會敲木頭表面。南韓人相信睡在一個開著電扇的密閉房間裡會要了你的命。土耳其人彼此警告不要在晚上嚼口香糖。為什麼呢?因為它會變成人肉!西方人有時會攜帶兔子腳以祈求好運氣。亞洲的飯店及醫院很少會有四樓,因為『4』在大多數華人方言裡聽起來跟『死』這個字很像。

  中亞人與中東人也對迷信這件事不陌生。這個地區的人普遍都相信有所謂的『邪毒眼』存在。人們可能以反對、嫉妒或甚至仇恨的方式來瞪視別人。根據該迷信,這種負面能量會以厄運的形式產生傷害,像是讓人受傷、生病或財富損失。為了避免任何負面的結果,三千多年來,人們製作了稱為『惡魔之眼』的圓形護身符。這些護身符是以玻璃製成的圓形形狀,它們通常會被當作項鍊配戴或是攜帶於錢包中,但在家裡、辦公室裡、車上,甚至在樹上也可以發現它們。它們的特色是外圈為藍色同心圓,而比較靠近中心則是較小的白黃色相間同心圓,中心有一個黑色或藍色的點,代表眼睛。顯然地,惡魔之眼能回視任何惡意的眼光並且化解它。

  儘管穆斯林學者不贊成,但惡魔之眼從埃及至伊朗、東南歐至阿富汗都可大量見其蹤跡。這看似迷信的思想將繼續與我們一起走向未來。

答案:1. D 2. A 3. G 4. J 5. H 6. F 7. E 8. C 9. I 10. B


























































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