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29
Wednesday
 
  Sweden Wants to Import Your Trash  垃圾變黃金
by William Ryan
European countries such as Sweden are paying cash for trash and then turning it into energy.
像是瑞典等的歐洲國家正在付錢買垃圾,並將之轉換成能源。

  Recovering waste and changing it into energy is a growing international business in the European Union (EU). Referred to as the Eurotrash industry and also as the waste-to-energy business, the idea caught _(1)_ because it benefits the environment while making a profit. In fact, waste-to-energy is the preferred method of trash disposal in the EU. There are already 420 conversion plants in Europe that can _(2)_ heat and electricity for over 20 million people. These numbers are _(3)_ to increase as more countries move away from using landfills because of environmental concerns. Sweden, Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands are all paying cash for trash that can be turned into energy. Even oil-rich Norway is importing trash.
  Sweden has _(4)_ been a world leader in the recycling field, with less than one percent of its household waste ending up in a landfill. This affluent country imports 700,000 tons of trash. However, waste-to-energy is just one aspect of the Swedish recycling revolution. Even though half of all Swedish household waste is turned into energy, Swedes are increasing their efforts to better recycle waste. The idea is to change every _(5)_ item into needed products, raw materials, or energy, which is a goal known as zero waste. Plastic containers are turned into plastic raw material, bottles are reused or melted into new items and composted food is chemically _(6)_ into biogas. Garbage trucks are fueled _(7)_ biogas and wastewater is purified and made potable again. Even ashes from incineration plants are separated and recycled. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency plans _(8)_ more to move the country toward zero waste. The agency is considering _(9)_ the cost to consumers and businesses for waste collection. A proposed waste prevention program includes encouraging manufacturers to make products that will _(10)_ longer , as well as another proposal to grant tax deductions for those who offer to make repairs.

(A) provide (B) by (C) last (D) expected (E) raising
(F) long (G) converted (H) discarded (I) even (J) on


原來如此
  1. Referred to as the Eurotrash industry and also as the waste-to-energy business, the idea caught on because it benefits the environment while making a profit.
    這個構想被稱作 Eurotrash 產業,也被稱為廢棄物再生能源企業,它之所以蔚為流行是因為它在造福環境的同時也創造了利潤。
    理由:
    a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
    catch on  受歡迎,蔚為風尚
    It didn't take very long for the latest fashion trend to catch on.
    這股最新的時尚潮流沒多久就蔚為風潮。
    b. 根據上述用法,(J) 項應為正選。
  2. There are already 420 conversion plants in Europe that can provide heat and electricity for over 20 million people.
    在歐洲已經有四百二十家能源轉換工廠,可以為兩千多萬人口提供熱能及電力。
    理由:
    a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
    provide A for B  提供 A 給 B
    同: provide B with A
    The restaurant provides free parking for customers.
    這間餐廳提供顧客免費停車。
    b. 根據上述用法,(A) 項應為正選。
  3. These numbers are expected to increase as more countries move away from using landfills because of environmental concerns.
    隨著越來越多國家因為環境問題而捨棄使用垃圾掩埋場,這些數字預計會再成長。
    理由:
    a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
    be expected to V  預定會……
    同: be scheduled to V
    A lot of people are expected to benefit from this new policy.
    預計將有很多人將從該新政策當中受惠。
    b. 根據上述,(D) 項應為正選。
  4. Sweden has long been a world leader in the recycling field, with less than one percent of its household waste ending up in a landfill.
    瑞典長久以來在回收領域當中就已是世界領先者,該國僅有不到百分之一的家庭垃圾最後被棄置在垃圾掩埋場。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有助動詞 has,空格後有 be 動詞 been,得知空格應置副詞以修飾 been。
    b. 選項中為副詞的有 (F) long(長久;始終)及 (I) even(甚至),惟根據語意,(F) 項應為正選。
    c. long adv. 長久以來
    Scientists have long believed that human beings evolved from primates like chimpanzees.
    科學家長久以來都認為人類是由像是黑猩猩的靈長類動物演化而來。
    *primate n. 靈長類動物
  5. The idea is to change every discarded item into needed products, raw materials, or energy, which is a goal known as zero waste.
    這個主意是要將每一份廢棄物轉化成需要的產品、原料或能源,這是一個被稱作零廢棄物的目標。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有形容詞 every(每一的),空格後有名詞 item(物),得知空格應置形容詞以修飾 item。
    b. 選項中為形容詞的有 (C) last(最後的)、(G) converted(改變的)及 (H) discarded(廢棄的),惟根據語意,(H) 項應為正選。
    c. discarded a. 被丟棄的
    衍:discard vt. 丟棄
    Eva discarded everything she had that reminded her of her ex-boyfriend.
    伊娃將任何會讓自己想起前男友的東西都丟掉。
  6. Plastic containers are turned into plastic raw material, bottles are reused or melted into new items and composted food is chemically converted into biogas.
    塑膠容器被轉換成塑膠原料,瓶子被重複利用或熔成新產品,而食物堆肥則以化學方式轉化成生質瓦斯。
    理由:
    a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
    be converted into...  改造∕轉變為……
    convert vt. 改造,轉變
    I bought a sofa that can be converted into a bed.
    我買了一張可以改變成床的沙發。
    b. 根據上述用法,(G) 項應為正選。
  7. Garbage trucks are fueled by biogas and wastewater is purified and made potable again.
    垃圾車是以生質瓦斯作為燃料發動,而廢水被淨化並再次製成可飲用的水。
    理由:
    a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
    be fueled by...  以⋯⋯作為燃料;因⋯⋯而更加強烈
    fuel vt. 供給燃料;助長
    Eve's desire to be a reporter was fueled by her father's encouragement.
    依芙想成為記者的念頭受到父親的激勵而更加強烈。
    b. 根據上述用法,(B) 項應為正選。
  8. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency plans even more to move the country toward zero waste.
    瑞典環保署甚至計劃更多方法來推動該國走向零廢棄物。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有及物動詞 plans(計劃)接 to move the country toward zero waste(推動該國走向零廢棄物)作受詞,形成 plan to...(計劃做⋯⋯)的用法,得知中間的 more 為比較級副詞,修飾 plans,故空格應置副詞以修飾 more。
    b. 可修飾比較級形容詞或副詞的副詞及副詞片語計有下列六個:far、much、a lot、a great deal、still 及 even。
    If you add a touch of vanilla to your coffee, it will be even more delicious.
    如果你加一點香草到咖啡中,味道就會更美味。
    *a touch of...  少量∕一點點⋯⋯
    c. 根據上述,(I) 項應為正選。
  9. The agency is considering raising the cost to consumers and businesses for waste collection.
    該局正考慮要調漲消費者及企業針對廢棄物收集的費用。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有及物動詞 consider 的現在進行式 is considering(考慮),空格後有受詞 the cost(費用),得知空格應置動名詞形式的及物動詞。
    b. 選項中符合上述的僅有 (E) raising(提高),置入後亦符合語意,故為正選。
    c. raise vt. 提升(工資、租金等)
    The landlord wanted to raise my rent by five percent.
    房東想要將我的租金調高百分之五。
  10. A proposed waste prevention program includes encouraging manufacturers to make products that will last longer, as well as another proposal to grant tax deductions for those who offer to make repairs.
    有一項已提出的廢棄物防治計劃包含了鼓勵製造商製造更耐用的產品,而另一項提案則是為提供修繕服務的廠商給予減稅優惠。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有助動詞 will(將會),得知空格應置原形動詞。
    b. 選項中為原形動詞的僅剩 (C) last(持續),置入後亦符合語意,故為正選。
    c. last vi. 持續
    An unfaithful marriage will never last long.
    一段不忠貞的婚姻永遠都不會持久。

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片語小舖
  1. be referred to as...  被稱為……
    同: be called...
    New York City is often referred to as the Big Apple.
    紐約市常被稱為大蘋果。
  2. make / earn / turn a profit  獲利
    The homeowner made a huge profit when he sold his house for twice its value.
    那名屋主將他的房子以兩倍的價格售出,賺取了龐大的利益。
  3. end up V-ing  到頭來……
    同: wind up V-ing
    The drug dealer ended up being in jail.
    這名毒販最後入獄了。

參考字詞

landfill n. 垃圾掩埋場
compost vt. 將……製成堆肥
biogas n. 生質瓦斯;沼氣
ash n. 灰燼
an incineration plant  垃圾焚化場
incineration n. 焚化
衍: incinerator n. 焚化爐
proposed a. 被提議的


精解字詞
  1. import vt. 進口
    反: export vt. 出口
    That set of knives is imported from Germany.
    那組刀具是從德國進口的。
    The company exported a wide variety of products to Japan.
    該公司出口各式各樣的產品到日本。
  2. preferred a. 偏愛的;首選的
    衍: prefer vt. 較喜歡;寧願
    prefer V-ing to V-ing  寧願……而不願……
    Clay is that artist's preferred medium.
    陶土是那位藝術家偏愛的表現材料。
    *medium n. 媒介(複數為 media)
    On weekends, I prefer staying at home to going out with friends.
    週末時,我寧願待在家裡而非和朋友外出。
  3. disposal n. 處理;處置
    衍: at one's disposal  由某人支配
    Carrie has lots of money at her disposal.
    凱莉有許多錢財可以由她支配。
  4. electricity n. 電力
  5. household a. 家用的 & n. 家庭
  6. affluent a. 富裕的
    同: wealthy a.
    The affluent man has his own private island.
    那名富人擁有自己的私人島嶼。
  7. raw a. 未經加工處理的;原始的
    衍: a raw material  原料
  8. melt vt. & vi. 融化,溶解
    衍: melt into...  (慢慢)轉變成……
    My hatred towards Leo slowly melted into dislike.
    我對里歐的憎恨慢慢變成了厭惡。
  9. separate vt. 將……分開
    衍: separate A from B  將 A 與 B 分開
    The mother was separated from her child during the rush to escape the fire.
    這名母親在火災緊急逃生時跟她的孩子分散了。
  10. manufacturer n. 製造業者
    衍: manufacture vt. 製造
    Lee's grandfather was a wealthy manufacturer.
    小李的祖父是一名富有的製造業者。
    I recommend buying electronics manufactured in Japan.
    我推薦購買日本製造的電子產品。
  11. grant vt. 給予;同意,准予
    Your request for housing benefits has been granted.
    你對住房津貼的申請已經獲准。
  12. deduction n. 減免
    衍: deduct vt. 扣除,減除
    After the deduction of taxes, I only make NT$25,000 per month.
    在扣除稅金之後,我每個月只賺新臺幣兩萬五千元。
    Dad deducted the price of the broken window from my allowance.
    爸爸從我的零用錢中扣除破掉的玻璃窗費用。
    *allowance n. 零用錢(= pocket money)


中文翻譯&標準答案


垃圾變黃金
像是瑞典等的歐洲國家正在付錢買垃圾,並將之轉換成能源。
  在歐盟,把廢棄物回收並將之轉換成能源是一項欣欣向榮的國際生意。這個構想被稱作 Eurotrash 產業,也被稱為廢棄物再生能源企業,它之所以蔚為流行是因為它在造福環境的同時也創造了利潤。實際上,廢棄物再生能源在歐盟是比較受歡迎的垃圾處理方法。在歐洲已經有四百二十家能源轉換工廠,可以為兩千多萬人口提供熱能及電力。隨著越來越多國家因為環境問題而捨棄使用垃圾掩埋場,這些數字預計會再成長。瑞典、德國、比利時和荷蘭全都付錢購買能夠轉換成能源的垃圾。即使是石油產量豐富的挪威也正在進口垃圾。
  瑞典長久以來在回收領域當中就已是世界領先者,該國僅有不到百分之一的家庭垃圾最後被棄置在垃圾掩埋場。這個富裕的國家進口了七十萬噸垃圾。然而,廢棄物再生能源僅是瑞典回收改革的其中一方面。僅管全瑞典的家庭廢棄物已有半數被轉換成能源,瑞典人仍更加努力,將廢棄物回收做得更好。這個主意是要將每一份廢棄物轉化成需要的產品、原料或能源,這是一個被稱作零廢棄物的目標。塑膠容器被轉換成塑膠原料,瓶子被重複利用或熔成新產品,而食物堆肥則以化學方式轉化成生質瓦斯。垃圾車是以生質瓦斯作為燃料發動,而廢水被淨化並再次製成可飲用的水。即便是焚化場的灰燼也被分離回收。瑞典環保署甚至計劃更多方法來推動該國走向零廢棄物。該局正考慮要調漲消費者及企業針對廢棄物收集的費用。有一項已提出的廢棄物防治計劃包含了鼓勵製造商製造更耐用的產品,而另一項提案則是為提供修繕服務的廠商給予減稅優惠。
答案: 1. J 2. A 3. D 4. F 5. H 6. G 7. B 8. I 9. E 10. C

 
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