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17
Wednesday
  Watching Sad Movies Does More than Just Make Us Cry 悲傷電影 神奇的心靈解藥
by Brian Foden
Researchers in England have discovered some interesting things about how sad movies affect us in different ways.
英國學者發現悲傷電影如何在不同層面對我們造成影響的一些有趣現象。

(右鍵可另存)

  Have you ever puzzled over why so many people enjoy watching tear-jerkers? As it turns out, researchers from England's University of Oxford had a burning desire to investigate that very phenomenon. The results are intriguing and appear to suggest that we are biologically wired to favor movies that bring tears to our eyes. In short, sad movies seem to trigger the release of chemicals in our brains called endorphins that act to increase our pain threshold and increase positive feelings.
  In the recent study, Robin Dunbar, a professor of evolutionary psychology at Oxford, and his research team recruited volunteers to take part in an experiment. The volunteers were divided into two groups. An experimental group of 169 people watched a sad movie called Stuart: A Life Backwards, based on a true story about a homeless man who eventually kills himself. Another 68 participants watched a documentary on the Natural History Museum in London and one film about Irish archeology and geology. These films were considered "neutral," having little or no emotional impact.
  Later, they tested each person's reaction to pain by asking him or her to sit in a crouched position with their back against a wall until their legs ached. The results suggest that, in the majority of subjects who watched the depressing movie, pain tolerance increased by 13.1% due to a rise in the release of endorphins. Conversely, for most of those who sat through the neutral documentaries, a decrease of 4.6% in their pain threshold occurred. The researchers concluded that the endorphin rush caused by watching sad movies makes them a "natural painkiller." In addition, they also generally improved people's moods, as shown by the participants' answers to questions after viewing the film.

1. What is the main idea of the reading?
(A) Watching sad movies triggers pain in some people.
(B) Researchers were confused by the results of their study.
(C) People's sense of pain was dulled by watching depressing movies.
(D) Documentaries about endorphins make people feel sad.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. According to the reading, how does watching sad movies give people more tolerance to pain?
(A) It increases the level of a certain chemical in the brain.
(B) It makes people feel better about others.
(C) It helps people feel the pain that actors experience in movies.
(D) It strengthens the muscles in the legs and other parts of the body.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Which of the following is true?
(A) Watching sad movies lowered people's endorphin levels.
(B) People who watched neutral documentaries saw an increase in pain tolerance.
(C) Watching the film about a London museum had no effect on brain chemicals.
(D) Viewing depressing movies temporarily changed the chemistry in the brain.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. How did researchers measure participants' emotions?
(A) By asking them to crouch against a wall.
(B) By examining their responses to a questionnaire.
(C) By listening to their opinions on a movie about a homeless man.
(D) By measuring the amount of endorphins in their brains.

片語小舖
  1. As it turns out, ...  結果∕事實證明,……
    衍: It turns out + that 子句  原來∕結果……
    turn out to be...  竟然是∕結果是……
    As it turns out, 1958 was an important year for industry.
    事實證明,1958 年對工業來說是重要的一年。
    It turned out that the so-called scholar was a swindler.
    原來那個所謂的學者是個騙子。
    *swindler n. 騙子
    The frog in the story turned out to be a prince.
    這則故事中的青蛙竟是個王子。
  2. have a burning desire to V  渴望從事……
    同: have a strong desire to V
    burning a. 強烈的
    I have a burning desire to go to Kenting for a visit.
    我好想到墾丁去玩一趟。
  3. take part in...  參與……
    同: partake in...
    = participate in...
    Everyone who takes part in the contest will win a prize.
    凡是參賽者人人有獎。
  4. be divided into...  被分為……
    同: be broken down into...
    divide vt. 使分開;劃分
    衍: divide A into B  把 A 分成 B
    The 300-page book was divided into 10 chapters.
    這本厚達三百頁的書分為十個章節。
    Please divide the clothes into two piles — lights and darks.
    請把這堆衣服分成淺色和深色兩堆。

Grammar Tips

Have you ever puzzled over why so many people enjoy watching tear-jerkers?
注意
a tear-jerker  賺人眼淚的電影
衍: a chick flick  少女愛看的電影
a horror movie  恐怖片
a blockbuster  賣座片
a detective movie  偵探片
a romantic movie  愛情片
a comedy movie  喜劇片
a tragedy movie  悲劇片
That romantic movie is a real tear-jerker.
那部愛情片真是賺人熱淚。
Horror movies do not appeal to me. I hate to be scared.
恐怖片並不吸引我。我討厭被嚇的感覺。
*appeal to sb  吸引某人

精解字詞
  1. puzzle vt. 使困惑
    衍: puzzling a. 令人迷惑的
    puzzled a. 困惑的
    feel puzzled / confused about sth  對某事感到困惑
    This question puzzles me. I wonder how the teacher expects me to answer it.
    這個問題讓我很困惑。我不知道老師期望我如何回答。
    The police found this case rather puzzling.
    警方發現這個案件相當令人費解。
    The detective felt puzzled about how the thief had avoided the security cameras.
    這名警探很納悶小偷是如何避開監視攝影機。
  2. phenomenon n. 現象(單數)
    衍: phenomena n. 現象(複數)
    An interesting phenomenon takes place on that small beach each winter.
    每年冬天那座小海灘都會發生很奇妙的自然現象。
  3. intriguing a. 有趣的,令人好奇的
    衍: intrigue vt. 吸引
    This magazine always has many intriguing articles.
    這本雜誌總是有許多引人入勝的文章。
    The mystery novel intrigued me from start to finish.
    這本懸疑小說從頭到尾都很吸引我。
  4. trigger vt. 引起 & n. 扳機
    衍: pull the trigger  扣下扳機
    The star's constant appearances on TV triggered an increase in sales of her autobiography.
    該明星不斷在電視上曝光,促使她的自傳銷量大增。
    *autobiography n. 自傳
    The robber threatened that he'd pull the trigger if the cashier didn't give him the money.
    那名搶匪威脅收銀員,說要是她不拿出錢來他就要扣下扳機。
    *cashier n. 收銀員
  5. recruit vt. 招募,聘用;招收
    Some cram schools find it hard to recruit new students these days.
    有些補習班發現最近要招收新生很困難。
  6. experimental a. 實驗性的
    衍: experiment n. 實驗
    We are still in the experimental stages of the project.
    這個專案我們仍在實驗的階段。
    Dr. Frankenstein is obsessed with his crazy experiments.
    法蘭肯斯坦博士沉迷於他瘋狂的實驗。
    *be obsessed with...  著迷於……
  7. participant n. 參加者,參與者
    All the participants in that race are the best in their schools.
    那場比賽所有的參賽者都是他們學校中的佼佼者。
  8. neutral a. 中立的
    衍: remain / stay neutral  保持中立
    I didn't take sides during their fight. I tried to remain neutral.
    他們爭吵時我沒偏袒任何一方。我試著保持中立。
    *take sides (with sb)  偏袒(某人)
  9. ache vi.(持續地)疼痛
    衍: one's heart aches for...
    某人因……而感到心痛∕傷心難過
    My heart aches for that boy who lost his parents in the accident.
    我為那名在意外中失去雙親的男孩感到難過。
  10. tolerance n. 容忍,忍受
    The teacher's tolerance was tested when the students started misbehaving.
    學生開始不守規矩時,考驗著那位老師的耐性。
    *misbehave vi. 行為不端
  11. conversely adv. 相反地
    同: on the contrary
    My friend thought the movie was incredible. Conversely, I left the theater disappointed.
    我朋友說這部電影很精采。相反地,我離開電影院時大失所望。
  12. dull vt. 使遲鈍 & a. 枯燥的
    Many people dull their senses by drinking too much alcohol.
    許多人因為酗酒使感覺變鈍。
    The book had a dull name, but I found it quite fascinating after I finished it.
    這本書的書名很無趣,但我讀完後發現它令我著迷。
  13. strengthen vt. 鞏固,強化
    We can strengthen our minds by playing games and reading books.
    我們可以藉由玩遊戲和閱讀書籍來增強心智。
  14. questionnaire n. 問卷

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單字小舖

biologically adv. 生理上地;生物性地
衍: biological a. 生物的
wired a. 天生俱來的
衍: wire vt. 給……裝電線;電匯 & n. 電線
endorphin n. 腦內啡(大腦所分泌的類嗎啡生物化學合成物,具有鎮痛作用)
pain threshold  疼痛忍受力
threshold n. 臨界點;門檻
evolutionary a. 進化的;逐漸演變的
衍: evolution n. 演化
psychology n. 心理學
archeology n. 考古學
geology n. 地質學
crouch vi. 蹲下(本文中為過去分詞作形容詞用)
painkiller n. 止痛藥
chemistry n. 化學;(感情間的)化學反應

中文翻譯&標準答案


悲傷電影 神奇的心靈解藥
英國學者發現悲傷電影如何在不同層面對我們造成影響的一些有趣現象。

  你曾對於為何這麼多人喜歡看催淚電影感到困惑嗎?結果,英國牛津大學一群學者非常想要研究這個現象。研究結果非常有趣,看來我們天生就喜歡看會讓我們落淚的電影。簡言之,悲傷電影似乎會引發我們大腦釋放被稱為腦內啡的化學物質,它的作用是增加我們的疼痛忍受力,並提升正面的情緒。

  在一項近期的研究中,牛津大學演化心理學教授羅賓‧鄧巴和他的研究團隊招募了志願者加入一項實驗。這些志願者被分為兩組。一組由一百六十九人組成的實驗組觀看一部悲傷電影:《倒帶人生》,這部電影是根據一位最後自殺的無家可歸男子他的真實故事所改編。另外六十八名參加者則觀賞一部倫敦自然史博物館的紀錄片,以及一部關於愛爾蘭考古學與地質學的影片。這兩部影片因為不會帶來情緒方面的影響,所以被視為「中性」。

  隨後,他們要求這些受試者靠牆蹲著,一直到他們腿痠為止,來測試每個人對疼痛的反應。結果顯示,大多數觀看沮喪電影的受試者由於腦內啡的釋放增加,疼痛忍受度增加了 13.1%。相反地,大多數坐著看完中性紀錄片的那些人對疼痛的忍受度則減少了 4.6%。研究人員所得到的結論是,因觀看悲傷電影所導致的腦內啡增加,讓悲傷電影成為「天然止痛藥」。此外,受試者在看完影片後對於問題的回答顯示出,這些電影通常也會改善人們的情緒。

1. 本文主旨為何?
(A) 觀看悲傷電影會引發某些人的痛苦。
(B) 研究人員對於他們的研究結果感到困惑。
(C) 藉由觀看悲傷電影,人們對疼痛的感覺會減緩。
(D) 與腦內啡有關的紀錄片會使人們感到悲傷。
題解:全文旨在敘述悲傷電影會導致腦內啡增加,進而提高人們對疼痛的忍受力,故 (C) 項應為正選。
2. 根據本文,觀看悲傷電影是如何提高人們對疼痛的忍受度?
(A) 它增加了大腦內的某種化學物質。
(B) 它使人們對他人的感覺更好。
(C) 它幫助人們體驗演員在電影中所經歷的痛苦。
(D) 它強化了腿部肌肉及身體的其他部份。
題解:根據本文第一段,悲傷電影似乎會引發我們大腦釋放被稱為腦內啡的化學物質,它的作用是增加我們的疼痛忍受力,並提升正面的情緒,故 (A) 項應為正選。
3. 下列何者正確?
(A) 觀看悲傷電影會降低人們的腦內啡水平。
(B) 觀看中性紀錄片的人被發現對疼痛的忍受度增加。
(C) 觀看有關倫敦一座博物館的影片對大腦化學物質沒有任何影響。
(D) 觀看悲傷電影會短暫地改變大腦內的化學成份。
題解:根據本文最後一段,大多數觀看沮喪電影的受試者由於腦內啡的釋放增加,疼痛忍受度增加了 13.1%,故 (D) 項應為正選。
4. 研究人員是如何測量受試者的情緒?
(A) 藉由要求他們靠牆蹲著。
(B) 藉由檢視他們對問卷的回答。
(C) 藉由傾聽他們對一部關於一位無家可歸男子的電影有何意見。
(D) 藉由測量他們腦內的腦內啡量。
題解:根據本文最後一段,受試者在看完影片後對於問題的回答顯示出,這些電影通常也會改善人們的情緒,故 (B) 項應為正選。

答案: 1. C 2. A 3. D 4. B









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