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30
Wednesday
  Shacks for Hungry Cab Drivers 倫敦果腹小屋
by Jamie Blackler

London's rich history reveals the reason behind the unique green buildings.
倫敦悠久的歷史揭示了這些獨特綠色建築背後的來由。

(右鍵可另存)
  If you're traveling through London, England, you might spot some old-fashioned, green shacks on the streets. The first of these small buildings, which are no larger than a horse and cart, were built in 1875. Their original purpose was to make piping hot food and drinks _(1)_ for the drivers of horse-drawn carriages. At that time, British law _(2)_ coachmen from leaving their carriages on the roadside while grabbing a drink or a bite to eat. _(3)_, a charity called the Cabmen's Shelter Fund constructed these shacks to make the drivers' lives a bit easier. They could remain _(4)_ in their carriages as they were served food from the window. This convenient concept worked so well that by the 20th century, there were 61 shelters in _(5)_ around the city.
  Although the shelters were tiny, they contained a full kitchen and could _(6)_ around 10 people inside. Aside from tables and chairs, the shelters also provided newspapers and magazines for customers to read. However, at the charity's _(7)_, drinking alcohol and gambling were not permitted at the shelters.
  _(8)_, only 13 of the original 61 shacks still remain. Modern drivers don't have much _(9)_ for them anymore, as laws have changed, and horse-drawn carriages have been replaced by taxis and Uber. However, many shelters continue to serve cheap coffee and small snacks. Recently, the UK government even _(10)_ them as historic buildings that should be protected for cultural purposes. This ensures that these cozy green shacks will be around for years to come.
(A) operation (B) request  (C) accommodate (D) available (E) seated
(F) use   (G) prohibited  (H) To date    (I) classified (J) As a result

原來如此

1. Their original purpose was to make piping hot food and drinks available for the drivers of horse-drawn carriages.
它們原先的目的是要讓駕駛馬車的人能夠享用到熱騰騰的食物和飲料。

理由:
a. 空格前有一完整子句,空格後有介詞 for,得知空格應置副詞或採後位修飾的形容詞。
b. 選項中符合上述的僅有 (D) available(可得到的),置入後亦符合語意,故為正選。
c. available a. 可得到的;可用的
There were some seats available in the back of the concert hall.
該音樂廳的後部還有一些空位。

2. At that time, British law prohibited coachmen from leaving their carriages on the roadside while grabbing a drink or a bite to eat.
當時,英國法律禁止馬車夫把馬車晾在路旁,而去喝杯飲料或吃點東西。

理由:
a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
prohibit sb from V-ing  禁止某人做……
: ban sb from V-ing
The new law prohibits convicted criminals from running for public office.
那條新法禁止被判刑的罪犯競選公職。
*convicted a. 被判有罪的
b. 根據上述用法,(G) 項應為正選。

3. As a result, a charity called the Cabmen's Shelter Fund constructed these shacks to make the drivers' lives a bit easier.
因此,一個名為車夫休憩站基金會的慈善機構打造了這些棚屋,好讓車夫們的生活變得更便利一些。

理由:
a. 空格後有一完整子句,得知空格應置副詞或副詞片語以修飾整個子句。
b. 選項中為副詞或副詞片語的有 (H) To date(迄今)及 (J) As a result(因此),惟根據語意,(J) 項應為正選。
c. as a result  結果,因此
: consequently adv.
Fred lost his job at the factory. As a result, he was unable to make mortgage payments on his house.
弗瑞德丟了工廠的工作。因此,他無法支付房屋貸款。
*make payments on...  支付……
mortgage n. 抵押借款;抵押

4. They could remain seated in their carriages as they were served food from the window.
他們可以待在自己的馬車上,因為棚屋會由窗口供應食物。

理由:
a. 空格前有不完全不及物動詞 remain(留下),得知空格應置名詞或形容詞作主詞補語。
b. 選項中符合上述的尚有 (B) request(要求)、(E) seated(就座的)、(F) use(使用)及 (I) classified(機密的),惟根據語意,(E) 項應為正選。
c. seated a. 就座的(不用於名詞前)
Please remain seated until the aircraft has come to a complete stop.
請您坐好,直到飛機完全停下來。

5. This convenient concept worked so well that by the 20th century, there were 61 shelters in operation around the city.
這種便利的概念實行地相當順利,到了二十世紀,整座城市便有六十一個休憩站在營運了。

理由:
a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
in operation  營業∕運作中
operation n. 營運;操作
A protective mask and gloves must be worn when the machine is in operation.
機器正在運轉時,你必須戴上防護罩和手套。
*protective a. 保護的
b. 根據上述用法,(A) 項應為正選。

6. Although the shelters were tiny, they contained a full kitchen and could accommodate around 10 people inside.
儘管這些休憩站非常小,不過卻擁有一整套廚房,裡頭還可容納十人左右。

理由:
a. 空格前有助動詞 could(能夠),空格後有名詞詞組 around 10 people(十人左右),得知空格應置原形及物動詞。
b. 選項中為原形及物動詞的有 (B) request(要求)、(C) accommodate(容納)及 (F) use(利用),惟根據語意,(C) 項應為正選。
c. accommodate vt. 容納
: accommodation n. 住宿
The auditorium can accommodate 3,000 students.
這個大禮堂可容納三千名學生。
This price is for meals only, exclusive of accommodations.
本價格只包含三餐的費用,不包含住宿。
*exclusive of...  不包括……

7. However, at the charity's request, drinking alcohol and gambling were not permitted at the shelters.
然而,應該慈善機構的要求,休憩站裡不允許喝酒和賭博行為。

理由:
a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
at one's request  應某人的要求
request n. 要求
At Molly's request, I'm watching her bird while she's on vacation.
應茉莉的要求,她去度假時我會幫她照顧她的小鳥。
b. 根據上述用法,(B) 項應為正選。

8. To date, only 13 of the original 61 shacks still remain.
迄今為止,當初的六十一座棚屋僅有十三座仍然保留著。

理由:
a. 空格後有一完整子句,得知空格應置副詞或副詞片語以修飾整個子句。
b. 選項 (H) To date(迄今)為介詞片語作副詞用,且置入後亦符合語意,故為正選。
c. to date  迄今
:to this day
= up to the present
Helping disaster victims has been the most rewarding experience I have had to date.
幫助災民是我人生到目前為止最可貴的經驗。
*rewarding a. 有意義的;有報酬的

9. Modern drivers don't have much use for them anymore, as laws have changed, and horse-drawn carriages have been replaced by taxis and Uber.
它們對於現在的駕駛司機來說再也沒有多大的用途,因為法律已經改變,且馬車也已被計程車和優步取代了。

理由:
a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
do not have use for...  用不著……;討厭……
: have no use for...
I don't have use for this scooter, so you can have it.
= I have no use for this scooter, so you can have it.
我用不著這臺機車了,你拿去騎吧。
*scooter n.(電動)摩托車
b. 根據上述用法,(F) 項應為正選。

10. Recently, the UK government even classified them as historic buildings that should be protected for cultural purposes.
近期,英國政府甚至將它們歸類為有文化用途而應善盡保護的歷史建築。

理由:
a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
classify A as B  將 A 歸類為 B
: categorize A as B
classify vt. 將……分類
: classified a.(情報、文件等)機密的
Some classify this music as jazz, while others call it pop.
有些人把這種音樂歸類為爵士樂,而也有些人稱之為流行樂。
The books in this section are classified by author.
這一區的書籍依作者分類。
The release of classified information drove the politician to resign.
那項機密資料的發布迫使該政治人物下臺。
b. 根據上述用法,(I) 項應為正選。

精解字詞

1. shack n. 棚屋;簡陋的小屋
: hut n.

2. reveal vt. 揭露,透露
: conceal vt. 隱藏,隱瞞
Jenny insisted on not revealing her secrets.
珍妮堅持不透露她的祕密。
*insist on N/V-ing  堅持(做)……
Al tends to conceal his true feelings from everyone.
艾爾往往會隱瞞自己真實的感受不讓任何人知道。

3. spot vt. 注意到,發現,認出 & n. 地點
: on the spot  立刻,當場
I easily spotted Joe in the crowd because of his afro.
由於阿喬的爆炸頭,我輕易就在人群中認出他來。
*afro n. 非洲式(蓬鬆)髮型
The tourists sought out a shady spot where they could sit down and rest.
遊客們找到一塊陰涼的地方好坐下來休息。
The shoplifter was caught on the spot by the clerk.
這個扒手當場被店員逮個正著。
*shoplifter n. 在商店偷東西的扒手

4. gambling n. 賭博
: gamble vi. 賭博
gamble away...  將……賭輸掉
Matthew lost his life savings because of gambling.
馬修因為賭博而輸光了畢生積蓄。
Henry gambled away US$10,000 on slot machines in Vegas.
亨利在拉斯維加斯玩吃角子老虎輸掉了一萬美元。
*a slot machine  吃角子老虎機

5. permit vt. 允許,准許
: permit sb to V  允許某人做……
The teacher permitted Sean to hand in his report two days late.
老師允許尚恩可以晚兩天交報告。

6. replace vt. 取代,替代
: replace A with B  用 B 取代 A
The chef replaced the sugar in the recipe with honey.
主廚用蜂蜜來取代食譜裡的糖。
*recipe n. 食譜

7. historic a. 有重大歷史意義的
: historical a. 歷史上的,有關歷史的
This cathedral is of great historic significance to the city.
這座大教堂對該市深具歷史意義。
*cathedral n. 大教堂
My collection of books varies from historical novels to science fiction.
我的藏書從歷史小說到科幻小說都有。
*vary from A to B  從 A 到 B 各異

8. ensure vt. 確保,保證
The bodyguard's job is to ensure the personal safety of the famous actress.
那位保鑣的職責就是要確保那個知名女演員的人身安全。

9. cozy a. 舒適的
: comfortable a.
Mellow music and dim lighting created a cozy atmosphere at this high-class restaurant.
柔和的音樂和微暗的照明替這家高級餐廳創造出舒適的氛圍。
*mellow a.(顏色、聲音)柔和的
dim a. 微暗的


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單字小舖

horse and cart  馬車
cart n.(馬、牛等動物拉的)貨運車;手推車
piping hot a. 熱騰騰的
: boiling hot
piping adv.(液體或食物)滾燙地
horse-drawn a. 用馬匹拉的
carriage n. 四輪馬車
coachman n.(舊時的)馬車夫

片語小鋪

1. grab a bite to eat  隨便抓東西吃
grab vt. 抓取(三態為:grab, grabbed , grabbed。)
I'm starving. Let's grab a bite to eat.
我餓扁了。咱們去隨便吃點東西吧。
*starving a. 飢餓的,挨餓的

2. aside from...  除……以外
: besides...
Aside from Mike, Barry should also be held responsible for the mistake.
除了麥克之外,貝瑞也該為這個錯誤負起責任。
*be held responsible for sth  應對某事負責

3. for + 一段時間 + to come  在未來的……(一段時間)
Although he passed away, the King of Pop will be remembered for years to come.
儘管那位流行樂之王已逝世,他在往後的歲月裡都將為世人緬懷。


中文翻譯&標準答案

倫敦果腹小屋
倫敦悠久的歷史揭示了這些獨特綠色建築背後的來由。

 如果你到英國倫敦旅遊,你可能會注意到街上一些舊式的綠色棚屋。首批的這些小型建築(不比一輛馬車大)是於 1875 年建造而成的。它們原先的目的是要讓駕駛馬車的人能夠享用到熱騰騰的食物和飲料。當時,英國法律禁止馬車夫把馬車晾在路旁,而去喝杯飲料或吃點東西。因此,一個名為車夫休憩站基金會的慈善機構打造了這些棚屋,好讓車夫們的生活變得更便利一些。他們可以待在自己的馬車上,因為棚屋會由窗口供應食物。這種便利的概念實行地相當順利,到了二十世紀,整座城市便有六十一個休憩站在營運了。
  儘管這些休憩站非常小,不過卻擁有一整套廚房,裡頭還可容納十人左右。除了桌椅外,休憩站還提供報章雜誌以供顧客閱讀。然而,應該慈善機構的要求,休憩站裡不允許喝酒和賭博行為。
  迄今為止,當初的六十一座棚屋僅有十三座仍然保留著。它們對於現在的駕駛司機來說再也沒有多大的用途,因為法律已經改變,且馬車也已被計程車和優步取代了。不過,許多休憩站仍繼續供應實惠的咖啡和小零嘴。近期,英國政府甚至將它們歸類為有文化用途而應善盡保護的歷史建築。此舉確保了這些舒適的綠色小棚屋在未來幾年還能繼續存在。
答案:1. D 2. G 3. J 4. E 5. A 6. C 7. B 8. H 9. F 10. I

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