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9
Wednesday
  UK Students Eating Healthier Food At School 「食」在好健康
by Brian Foden

At Chestnuts Primary School in England, a program that TV chef Jamie Oliver would be proud of continues to make a difference.
在英國的契斯納小學,電視主廚傑米‧奧利佛可能會引以為傲的一個計畫將持續發揮作用。

(右鍵可另存)
  Unfortunately, kids love to eat junk food, which is not good for their health. The high fat and sugar content found in this kind of food can _(1)_ obesity and other problems. Luckily, some schools have responded to this problem by encouraging their students to try healthier _(2)_. One such school is Chestnuts Primary School in South Tottenham, England. In order to make lunchtime a more positive experience for kids, Chestnuts runs its own catering service _(3)_ relying on an outside food supplier. As part of the program, the school also owns five chickens and sells eggs to parents and other residents in the area. The majority of pupils, about 70%, _(4)_ eat the meals prepared by the school. Since putting the system into place, there have been several benefits for the students, according to head teacher Cal Shaw. Attendance at the school has improved, there has been less fighting on the playground, and "... the school has experienced improved academic attainment results for three consecutive years," Shaw said.
  At least part of the trend of eating better in British schools is due to the efforts of celebrity chef Jamie Oliver. _(5)_ about the poor quality of food served in many schools in England, Oliver began his Feed Me Better campaign in 2005. In his popular TV program, he struggled to _(6)_ children to eat fresh, healthy choices instead of junk food. Eventually, his campaign persuaded the British government to _(7)_ hundreds of millions of pounds to improve food programs at schools. Certainly, Oliver would be proud of the success of Chestnuts' program!
1. (A) lead to  (B) result from  (C) lie in  (D) turn down
2. (A) bargains  (B) permits  (C) options  (D) outcomes
3. (A) as long as  (B) rather than  (C) owing to  (D) on account of
4. (A) scarcely  (B) alternately  (C) miserably  (D) regularly
5. (A) Concerning  (B) Concern  (C) To concern  (D) Concerned
6. (A) convince  (B) confirm  (C) threaten  (D) notify
7. (A) cost   (B) spend  (C) take (D)  have

原來如此

1. The high fat and sugar content found in this kind of food can lead to obesity and other problems.
在這種食物中發現的高脂肪和糖含量可能會導致肥胖以及其他問題。

理由:
a. (A) lead to...  導致⋯⋯
: result in...
Excessive drinking could lead to liver problems.
飲酒過度可能會導致肝臟方面的疾病。
*excessive a. 過度的
liver n. 肝臟
(B) result from...  原因是∕起因於……
Amy's graduating in less than four years resulted from her hard work and determination.
艾咪可以以四年不到的時間提前畢業是因為她的努力與決心。
(C) lie in...  在於……
The problem lies in deciding where to draw the line.
問題在於決定該在哪裡劃下界線。
(D) turn down...  拒絕……
: reject vt.
Luke turned down the job offer, citing the low salary as the reason.
路克以薪資低為由拒絕了那份工作。
*cite vt. 舉出;引……為證
b. 根據語意,(A) 項應為正選。

2. Luckily, some schools have responded to this problem by encouraging their students to try healthier options.
幸運的是,某些學校透過鼓勵其學生嘗試更健康的選擇來因應這個問題。

理由:
a. (A) bargain n. 划算(品)& vi. 討價還價
: be a good bargain  買得很划算的東西
= be a good buy
= be a good deal
bargain with sb  和某人討價還價
You should buy that guitar because it's a good bargain.
你應該買下那把吉他,因為它很划算。
My mother loves to bargain with the vendors when she goes shopping.
我媽去買東西時很喜歡和攤販殺價。
(B) permit n. 許可證;證照 & vt. 允許,許可
: permit sb to V  允許某人做……
Before we can climb Jade Mountain, we need to get a permit.
我們需要取得入山許可證才能爬玉山。
The teacher permitted Sean to hand in his report two days late.
老師允許尚恩可以晚兩天交報告。
(C) option n. 選擇
: have no option but to V  除……外別無選擇
Robert had no option but to lend his sister the money for rent.
羅伯特不得不借錢給他姊姊付房租。
(D) outcome n. 結果,結局
The fortune-teller enlightened Anna on all the possible outcomes of her relationship with Carl.
那位算命師向安娜說明她和卡爾在一起所有可能發生的後果。
*enlighten sb on sth  啟發某人某事;為某人說明某事
enlighten vt. 啟發;指點
b. 根據語意,(C) 項應為正選。

3. In order to make lunchtime a more positive experience for kids, Chestnuts runs its own catering service rather than relying on an outside food supplier.
契斯納小學為了讓午餐時間成為孩童更正面的體驗,他們自己經營餐飲服務,而不是依賴外頭的食品供應商。

理由:
a. (A) as long as...  只要……
You will get better as long as you take the medicine.
只要你吃藥,身體就會漸漸康復。
(B) rather than...  而非……;取代……
: instead of...
Some say that happiness, rather than hard work, is the key to success.
有人說快樂,而非努力,才是成功的祕訣。
(C) owing to...  由於……
: due to...
= as a result of...
= as a consequence of...
Terry made a big mistake owing to his carelessness.
泰瑞由於粗心而犯了大錯。
*carelessness n. 粗心,疏忽
(D) on account of...  因為……
: because of...
The baseball game was postponed on account of the bad weather.
那場棒球賽因為天氣惡劣而延期了。
*postpone vt. 延期
b. 根據語意,(B) 項應為正選。

4. The majority of pupils, about 70%, regularly eat the meals prepared by the school.
大多數的學生(大約 70%)經常食用學校所準備的膳食。

理由:
a. (A) scarcely adv. 幾乎不,幾乎沒有
David scarcely stays up late because he has to go to work early.
大衛很少熬夜,因為他很早就要出門上班。
(B) alternately adv. 交替地;輪流地
We could wait for the last bus, or alternately, we can get a taxi home now.
我們可以等最後一班公車,不然我們也可以現在就搭計程車回家。
(C) miserably adv. 悲慘地
The little girl was wailing miserably because she got lost in the department store.
那名小女孩因為在百貨公司裡迷路而嚎啕大哭。
*wail vi. 哭嚎
(D) regularly adv. 經常地;規律地,定期地
I check my email regularly, so you can contact me anytime.
我定期檢查我的電子信箱,所以你隨時可以跟我聯絡。
b. 根據語意,(D) 項應為正選。

5. Concerned about the poor quality of food served in many schools in England, Oliver began his Feed Me Better campaign in 2005.
奧利佛關注到英格蘭許多學校所供應的食物品質不佳,他在 2005 年發起了「給我好食」運動。

理由:
a. 當兩句在一起無連接詞連接時,通常可將第一句化簡為分詞句構,其法則如下:
1) 被化簡的子句中,主詞與主要子句的主詞相同時,該主詞要被刪除,若主詞不同時則要保留;
2) 之後的動詞要變成現在分詞;
3) 若該動詞為 be 動詞時,則變成現在分詞 being 之後可予以省略。
4) 因此此處刪除第一個子句中的相同主詞 Oliver, 並將之後的 be 動詞 was 改為現在分詞 being 後予以省略,即成本句。
b. 原句解析如下:
Oliver was concerned about the poor quality of food served in many schools in England, and Oliver began his Feed Me Better campaign in 2005.
c. 根據上述,(D) 項應為正選。

6. In his popular TV program, he struggled to convince children to eat fresh, healthy choices instead of junk food.
在其受歡迎的電視節目中,他努力說服孩童們選擇食用新鮮、健康的食物來取代垃圾食物。

理由:
a. (A) convince vt. 說服;使相信
: convince sb to V  說服某人(做)⋯⋯
= persuade sb to V
You will never convince me to cheat on the test.
你是絕不可能說服我考試作弊的。
(B) confirm vt. 確認;證實
Bill confirmed his hotel reservation two days before he went on his trip.
比爾在出門旅行前兩天先確認訂房。
*reservation n. 預訂
(C) threaten vt. 威脅
: threaten to V  威脅要從事……
North Korea threatened to launch a missile that could reach the US.
北韓威脅要發射可擊中美國的飛彈。
(D) notify vt. 通知,告知
: notify sb of sth  通知∕告知某人某事
Please notify us of when you might arrive.
請通知我們你何時會抵達。
b. 根據語意,(A) 項應為正選。

7. Eventually, his campaign persuaded the British government to spend hundreds of millions of pounds to improve food programs at schools.
最後,他的此項運動說服英國政府花費數億英鎊來改善學校的食物計畫。

理由:
a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
人 + spend + 表時間 / 金錢的名詞 + to V
某人花費……(時間∕金錢)以做……(表目的)
:人 + spend + 表時間 / 金錢的名詞 + V-ing / on sth  
某人花費……(時間∕金錢)做……∕在……上
(spend 須以「人」作主詞,之後可接表「時間」或「金錢」的名詞)
The company spends a large sum of money to make advertisements every year.
該公司每年花費一大筆錢來製作廣告。
Larry spent NT$30,000 buying a set of encyclopedias.
賴瑞花了新臺幣三萬元買了一套百科全書。
*encyclopedia n. 百科全書
b. 其他選項:
(A) cost vt. 花費(三態同形)
: sth costs sb + 表金錢的名詞  某物花某人……(金錢)
It costs sb + 表金錢的名詞 + to V  某人花……(金錢)做……
(cost 須以「物」或虛主詞 it 作主詞,而不可用「人」作主詞,且之後僅能接表「金錢」的名詞)
This new cellphone cost me NT$20,000.
這支新手機花了我新臺幣兩萬元。
It cost Emily NT$3,000 to buy the CD burner.
買這臺 CD 燒錄機花了艾蜜莉新臺幣三千元。
(C) 使用 take 時,可用虛詞 it、事物或人作主詞,與表時間的名詞並用,句型如下:
It takes sb + 時間 + to V  某人從事……花費了若干時間(表已完成)
sb takes + 時間 + to V  某人花了……(時間)做……(有沒有完成不一定)
sth takes + (sb) + 時間  某事物花(某人)若干時間
It took me the whole morning to clean up my bedroom.
我花了一整個早上才清理好我的臥室。
Connie took an hour to learn how to bake a cake.
康妮花了一個小時學烤蛋糕。── 是否學會不得而知。
The job took me two hours.
這工作花了我兩個小時。
c. 根據上述用法,(B) 項應為正選。

精解字詞
  1. primary school  小學
    : elementary school
    : junior high school  國中
    senior high school  高中
  2. content n. 含量 & vt. 使滿足 & a. 滿足的
    The salt content in the Dead Sea is very high.
    死海中的鹽含量很高。
    Suzie did her best to content her customers.
    蘇西盡她所能來滿足她的顧客。
    Henry isn't content with his new hairstyle.
    亨利不滿意自己的新髮型。
  3. obesity n. 肥胖
    : obese a. 肥胖的,過胖的
    Fast food can lead to obesity and high blood pressure.
    速食可能會導致肥胖以及高血壓。
    A high percentage of kids are now overweight or obese.
    現今有很高比例的孩童都過重或是肥胖。
  4. run vt. 經營
    My brother runs an auto maintenance center.
    我的哥哥經營一家汽車維修中心。
    *maintenance n. 維修,保養
  5. supplier n. 供應商
  6. resident n. 居民
  7. celebrity n. 名人
    Many celebrities attended the awards ceremony.
    許多名人都出席了該頒獎典禮。
  8. persuade vt. 說服
    : persuade sb to V  說服某人(做)⋯⋯
    = convince sb to V
    Martha persuaded Tom to work out twice a week with her.
    瑪莎說服湯姆每週和她去健身兩次。
  9. certainly adv. 當然;肯定地(強調語氣用)
    I could tell from the manager's expression that he certainly liked your proposal.
    我可以從經理的表情看出他真的很喜歡你的提案。

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單字小舖

catering n. 外燴,承辦酒席
pupil n. 學生
attendance n. 出席(率)
attainment n. 成就
: attain vt. 達到;獲得
consecutive a. 連續的
: 數字 + consecutive years  連續……年
= 數字 + years in a row

片語小鋪

1.be proud of...  對……感到驕傲,以……為榮
: take pride in...
= pride oneself on...

2. continue to V  繼續⋯⋯
: continue V-ing
= go on V-ing
= keep V-ing
If you continue to smoke, you will get cancer someday.
如果你繼續抽菸,總有一天會得癌症。

3. make a difference  發揮作用,有所影響

4. respond to...  回應⋯⋯
Several people responded to the company's want ad for an electrician.
有好幾個人回覆那家公司應徵電工的徵人啟事。
*electrician n. 電工

5. encourage sb to V  鼓勵某人從事⋯⋯
Judy's parents encouraged her to pursue her dream.
茱蒂的父母鼓勵她追求自己的夢想。

6. struggle to V  努力∕奮力(做)……
Jim struggled to carry the box of books up the stairs.
吉姆努力搬著那箱書上樓。

中文翻譯&標準答案

「食」在好健康
在英國的契斯納小學,電視主廚傑米‧奧利佛可能會引以為傲的一個計畫將持續發揮作用。

  遺憾的是,孩童喜歡吃垃圾食品,而這不利於他們的健康。在這種食物中發現的高脂肪和糖含量可能會導致肥胖以及其他問題。幸運的是,某些學校透過鼓勵其學生嘗試更健康的選擇來因應這個問題。一個像這樣的學校是位於英國南托登罕的契斯納小學。契斯納小學為了讓午餐時間成為孩童更正面的體驗,他們自己經營餐飲服務,而不是依賴外頭的食品供應商。作為該計畫的一部分,學校還飼養五隻雞,並販售雞蛋給該地區的家長和其他居民。大多數的學生(大約 70%)經常食用學校所準備的膳食。據校長卡爾‧蕭表示,自從落實了這套系統,對學生有若干個好處。學校的出席率有所改善,操場上的打架事件也減少,蕭說道:「……學校整體學業成績,也連續三年都進步了。」
  在英國的學校中,吃得更好的這種趨勢至少有一部分是由於知名主廚傑米‧奧利佛的努力。奧利佛關注到英格蘭許多學校所供應的食物品質不佳,他在 2005 年發起了「給我好食」運動。在其受歡迎的電視節目中,他努力說服孩童們選擇食用新鮮、健康的食物來取代垃圾食物。最後,他的此項運動說服英國政府花費數億英鎊來改善學校的食物計畫。無疑地,奧利佛將為契斯納小學計畫的成功感到自豪!
答案: 1. A 2. C 3. B 4. D 5. D 6. A 7. B

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