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★ 笑容真不真?杜鄉告訴你 What Smiling Can Tell Us

所有人都望著鏡頭,看起來面帶微笑,但不知怎地,並非每個人看起來都是真的很開心。
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The photographer calls out to the group and points to his camera lens. “OK, everyone. Look right here and smile!” Diligently the crowd __1__. The result is not quite what the photographer might expect. Everyone is looking at the camera, and they seem to be smiling, but somehow not everyone looks __2__ happy.

攝影師朝著大家喊了一聲,並指著他的相機鏡頭。「好,各位。看這裡笑一個!」大家便盡全力配合。結果卻不如攝影師的期望。所有人都望著鏡頭,看起來面帶微笑,但不知怎地,並非每個人看起來都是真的很開心。

diligently [ ˈdɪlədʒəntlɪ ] adv. 勤奮地,勤勉地

 

笑容真不真?杜鄉告訴你 What Smiling Can Tell Us

How can that be? All the faces reveal mouths that are turned up at the corners. However, this is merely the action of the zygomaticus major facial muscle. These __3__ to be real smiles but often are not. Anyone can “ fake” a smile this way. A real smile, physiologists tell us, __4__ contraction of orbicularis oculi, fine muscles around the eyes. These muscles can crumple the skin around the eyes, producing wrinkles commonly called “crows’ feet.” The name comes from the fact that these long, fine lines spreading out from the eyes __5__ the feet of a crow. The French neurologist Duchenne de Boulogne studied this phenomenon in 1862. Subsequently, this type of smile became known as the Duchenne smile in his __6__. In most cases, it is a sign of pure, honest pleasure by the person smiling.

怎麼會這樣?每張臉的嘴角都是上揚的。然而,這不過是臉部顴大肌在動。這些微笑看起來像是真笑,但通常不是。任何人都可以用這種方法「假笑」。生理學家告訴我們,真正的微笑需要收縮眼輪匝肌,也就是眼周的細小肌肉。這些肌肉可以使眼周的皮膚皺起來,產生一般稱為「魚尾紋」(編按:英文字面意思為「烏鴉腳」)的皺紋。會有這個名稱,是因為這些從眼睛向外延伸的長細紋就像烏鴉的腳。法國神經學家杜鄉.德.布洛涅在 1862 年研究了這個現象。後來,這種微笑就稱為「杜鄉式微笑」以紀念他。在大多數情況下,如果一個人帶著杜鄉式微笑,就表示此人是真心誠意地感到愉悅。

merely [ ˈmɪrlɪ ] adv. 僅僅,只
fake [ fek ] vt. 假裝/裝出(某種情感或疾病)
contraction [ kənˈtrækʃən ] n. 收縮
wrinkle [ ˈrɪŋkl̩ ] n. 皺紋
subsequently [ ˈsʌbsəkwəntlɪ ] adv. 隨後地

You may think, “Well, that’s nice, but, so what?” For quite a long time after de Boulogne’s research, it was thought that the Duchenne smile could not be faked. Anyone “wearing” a Duchenne smile was __7__ to be truly happy. More recent research, however, has shown that some exceptionally skilled communicators can produce a Duchenne smile __8__. Still, for the vast majority of people, a Duchenne smile is a sure sign of a very happy person.

你可能會想:「嗯,好喔,但是那又怎樣?」在杜鄉的研究發表之後,有很長一段時間,人們都認為杜鄉式微笑是裝不來的。任何「帶著」杜鄉式微笑的人都會被認為是真心感到快樂。然而,較近的研究指出,某些溝通技巧特別高明的人有辦法裝出杜鄉式微笑。儘管如此,對大多數人來說,杜鄉式微笑肯定是一個人很開心的表現。

exceptionally [ ɪkˈsɛpʃənl̩ɪ ] adv. 格外地,非常

A Duchenne smile, sometimes described as polite smiling, may not be __9__ with personal pleasure, but it does help to inspire empathy with others. That is, smiling can act as a social __10__ that helps bring people together. As Ella Wheeler Wilcox wrote in a poem, “Smile, and the whole world smiles with you.”

杜鄉式微笑(有時被描述為禮貌的微笑)或許與一個人是否愉悅無關,但這種笑確實有助於引起別人的共鳴。也就是說,微笑可以作為一種社會黏合劑,讓人們更加和睦。正如艾拉.惠勒.威爾柯克斯(編按:為美國知名詩人與作家)在一首詩裡寫的那樣:「你微笑,世人都會與你一同微笑。」

inspire [ ɪnˈspaɪr ] vt. 使(某人)產生(某種情感或反應);賦予靈感,激發(想法)

 

(A) honor (B) glue (C) involves (D) assumed (E) appear
(F) genuinely (G) resemble (H) connected (I) intentionally (J) complies

 

Ans: 1. J 2. F 3. E 4. C 5. G
6. A 7. D 8. I 9. H 10. B

>> 古典人物肖像為何總是皮笑肉不笑? Smile, Smirk, or Serious?
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作者

Bruce E. Bagnell
Bruce E. Bagnell
常春藤解析英語雜誌資深外籍教師,中英文流利,曾為台灣大學資深教授,與賴世雄老師為多年好友。