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✶ 復活長毛象救地球?The Woolly Mammoth Returns

The Woolly Mammoth Returns
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復活長毛象救地球?The Woolly Mammoth Returns
如果新的長毛象被重新引入已適應了過去四千年不斷變化之環境的土地,我們真的不知道會發生什麼事。
>> 鴨嘴獸:誰能比我更獨特 The Platypus: Breaking the Mammalian Mold for Millennia
目錄 / Practical Phrases / Words for Reference / Phrases for Reference / Words in Use / Grammar Tips中文翻譯&答案 

混和題型

The Woolly Mammoth Returns

  The woolly mammoth was a huge, elephant-like creature that lived during the last ice age. It went extinct 4,000 years ago due to a combination of the warming environment and hunting by humans. However, scientists are hoping to bring it—or rather, a hybrid of it and an Asian elephant—back from extinction. A team of Harvard University researchers, along with the US startup company Colossal Biosciences, aims to use gene editing to modify the embryos of Asian elephants by combining them with DNA from a frozen mammoth. These embryos will grow in either artificial wombs or surrogate elephants until they develop into “mammophants.”

  The intention is not to bring an extinct species back out of simple curiosity; it is actually part of a mission to fight climate change. When woolly mammoths wandered the land, they knocked down trees and helped maintain a light layer of grass on the ground. This prevented the ground from becoming too warm and thus protected the permafrost, which is a hard, frozen layer of earth beneath the surface. In the absence of woolly mammoths, permafrost may thaw and release tons of carbon into the atmosphere. It is hoped that a new population of mammoths might reverse this trend.

  This plan is not without its critics, though. Some believe that it is ethically wrong to interfere in nature, and that it is better to spend time and money on protecting currently endangered species. Others argue that we don’t truly know what would happen if new mammoths are reintroduced into lands that have already adapted to changing circumstances over the last 4,000 years. Still others state that the plan is simply too unrealistic to work, given the vast numbers of mammophants that would be required. Only time will tell how things turn out for the mammophants.

 

1.    What is the main purpose of this passage?(單選題)

(A)  To provide information on the history of the woolly mammoth.

(B)  To warn about the dangers of interfering in the natural world.

(C)  To introduce a potentially helpful but controversial idea.

(D)  To discuss different theories about climate change.

 

2.    According to the passage, the woolly mammoth disappeared from the face of the Earth because the world’s temperature had been getting ___1___ and they had been ___2__ by humans.(填空)

 

3.    Based on the passage, please check (V) the reasons people are against bringing back the woolly mammoth.(勾選題)

Disapproving Opinions

Check (V)

It is morally wrong to do so.

 

The plan to bring woolly mammoths back is impractical.    

 

The woolly mammoth will destroy lots of trees and ground.

 

Permafrost may melt and release large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere.

 

It is unknown how new mammoths will impact an environment that has changed so much.

 

 

答案:

1.C  

2-1. warmer (and warmer) / higher (and higher)  2-2. hunted  

3.

Disapproving Opinions

Check (V)

It is morally wrong to do so.

V

The plan to bring woolly mammoths back is impractical.    

V

The woolly mammoth will destroy lots of trees and ground.

 

Permafrost may melt and release large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere.

 

It is unknown how new mammoths will impact an environment that has changed so much.

V

 

 

Practical Phrases

      1.    or rather  更確切地說
•   We went to the party in Ray’s car, or rather his brother’s.
我們都搭小雷的車去派對,更確切地說,他哥哥的車。

      2.    knock down...  撞倒……
•   It took the referee some time to recover after he was knocked down by a player.
該裁判被一名球員撞倒之後花了一些時間才復原。

      3.    prevent... from N/V-ing  預防……以免……
•   Jonathan prevented the fire from spreading by using the fire extinguisher.
強納森用滅火器阻止了這場火勢繼續蔓延。

      4.    some... others... still others...  一些……一些……另一些……(用於非限定的三群)
•   Some people enjoy reading, others like to listen to music, and still others are fond of exercising.
有些人喜歡閱讀,有些人喜歡聽音樂,還有些人喜歡運動。

      5.    adapt to N/V-ing  適應……
=    adjust to N/V-ing
•   It took my grandfather years to adapt to city life.
我爺爺花了好多年的時間才適應都市生活。

Words for Reference  

◆   woolly mammoth [ ˋmæməθ ]  長毛象,猛瑪象
=    wooly mammoth
◆   hybrid [ ˋhaɪbrɪd ] n. 混種
◆   startup [ ˋstɑrt͵ʌp ] a. 新創的 & n. 新創公司
◆   gene editing  基因編輯
◆   embryo [ ˋɛmbrɪ͵o ] n. 胚胎
◆   womb [ wum ] n. 子宮
◆   surrogate [ ˋsɝrəget ] a. 代理的,替代的
◆   permafrost [ ˋpɝmə͵frɔst ] n. 永久凍土(層)
◆   thaw [ θɔ ] vi. 融化,解凍
◆   carbon [ ˋkɑrbən ] n. 碳
◆   ethically [ ˋɛθɪklɪ ] adv. 道德上地
◆   reintroduce [ ͵riɪntrəˋdjus ] vt. 重新引進 

Phrases for Reference  

◆   vast numbers of...  廣大的……
◆   disappear from the face of the Earth   從地球上消失

Words in Use

1.   extinct [ ɪkˋstɪŋkt ] a. 絕種的,滅絕的
      extinction [ ɪkˋstɪŋkʃən ] n. 絕種,滅絕
•   This kind of butterfly has been extinct for decades.
     這種蝴蝶已經絕種數十年了。
•   Whales have been hunted almost to extinction.
     鯨魚已被捕殺到幾近絕種的地步。

2.   combination [ ͵kɑmbəˋneʃən ] n. 結合
      a combination of...  ……的綜
      =    a mixture of...
•   The accident was caused by a combination of errors.
     許多錯誤綜合起來導致了這個意外。

3.    artificial [ ͵ɑrtəˋfɪʃəl ] a. 人造的,人工的
•   Harry’s artificial heart lengthened his life by 10 years.
     哈利的人工心臟延長了他十年的壽命。

4.    intention [ ɪnˋtɛnʃən ] n. 目的,意圖
•   It was far from Terry’s intention to fight with his neighbor.
     泰瑞不是有意要跟鄰居起衝突的。

5.    layer [ ˋleɚ ] n. 層
       a layer of...  一層的……
•   There was a layer of dust on my windowsill.
     我的窗臺上有一層灰塵。

6.    absence [ ˋæbsns ] n. 不存在;缺席
       in the absence of...  沒有……
•   In the absence of evidence, we couldn’t prove that Al was guilty.
    沒有證據,我們無法證明艾爾有罪。

7.    reverse [ rɪˋvɝs ] vt. 扭轉;徹底改變
•   The city’s budget-cutting measures failed to reverse the economic decline.
     該市的預算削減措施未能扭轉經濟衰退。

8.   interfere [ ͵ɪntɚˋfɪr ] vi. 干涉,介入 
      interfere in...  干涉……

•   The government should not interfere in the stock market.
     政府不該干預股市。

9.    endangered [ ɪnˋdendʒɚd ] a. 瀕臨絕種的
•   Congress passed a new bill to help endangered animals.
     國會通過一項幫助瀕危動物的新法案。

10.  circumstance [ ˋsɝkəm͵stæns ] n. 環境(常用複數)
•   The refugees are living in desperate circumstances.
     難民們正生活在惡劣的環境中。

11.  unrealistic [ ͵ʌnrɪəˋlɪstɪk ] a. 不切實際的
=    impractical [ Im`prAktIkL ] a.
•   It is unrealistic to expect everything to get better at once.
    期待每件事能立即改善是不切實際的。

12.  controversial [ ͵kɑntrəˋvɝʃəl ] a. 有爭議性的
•   The mayor chose not to comment on the controversial matter.
     該市長選擇不對那個具爭議性的話題發表評論。

More to Learn

modify [ ˋmɑdə͵faɪ ] vt. 修改,更改
•   The engineer modified the computer so that it would run faster.
那位工程師把電腦做了變更,使它能運作得更快。

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介紹各種「修改」的英文說法:
a.    modify 通常只是微幅調整或改變,讓某個東西變得更符合期待或需求。修改的東西很廣泛,可以是一個計畫、建議或行為等。
b.    amend [ əˋmɛnd ] 指微幅修改文字或敘述,讓用字可以更精準,而且常是用在修改法律條文、聲明等正式文件。
•   Both my landlord and I agreed to amend our rental contract.
房東和我都同意修改租約。
c.    alter [ ˋɔltɚ ] 指使變得更好或更合適,也可指修改衣服,使其變得更合身。
•   Henry altered his vacation plans so that his parents could travel with him.
亨利更改了度假計畫,好讓父母能和他一起去旅行。
•   The shirt is a little too large for me, so it needs to be altered.
這件襯衫對我來說大了點,所以需要修改。
d.    correct [ kəˋrɛkt ] 是把錯的東西改成對的,更正的東西可以是實體也可以是抽象的。
•   I wear glasses to correct my vision.
我戴眼鏡來矯正我的視力。
e.    revise [ rɪˋvaɪz ] 通常是將某個東西改得更好,而不是將錯誤改對,所以 revise 通常是用在修改論文、文章等。
•   Can you draft a proposal first, and then I will revise it later?
你能不能先草擬提案,然後我稍後再來修改?

 

Grammar Tips 

A team of Harvard University researchers, along with the US startup company Colossal Biosciences, aims to use gene editing to modify the embryos of Asian elephants...

介紹 along with... 的用法

※   along with... 為片語介詞,表「以及∕連同……」之意,相當於 together with... 和 as well as...。
•   On Christmas, my best friend Lisa sent me a gift along with a Christmas card.
=    On Christmas, my best friend Lisa sent me a gift together with a Christmas card.
=    On Christmas, my best friend Lisa sent me a gift as well as a Christmas card.
聖誕節那天,我的好友麗莎寄給我一份禮物和一張聖誕賀卡。

※   along with、together with 和 as well as 連接主詞,形成「A, along with / together with / as well as B, V...」的結構時,動詞要隨著第一個主詞 A 做變化。
•   Julie, along with her friends, loves to go hiking.
=    Julie, together with her friends, loves to go hiking.
=    Julie, as well as her friends, loves to go hiking.
茱莉和她朋友都愛去健行。

※   連接主詞時,由於 along with 和 together with 為片語介詞,故之後要接受格,而 as well as 則為對等連接詞,故之後要接主格,以與其前的主格對等。
•   Bruce, along with me, is interested in playing the guitar.
=    Bruce, together with me, is interested in playing the guitar.
=    Bruce, as well as I, is interested in playing the guitar.
布魯斯和我都對彈吉他感興趣。

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

精選試題

Mary, along with her parents, _____ the first to arrive at the museum.

(A) were        (B) being       (C) was       (D) to be

 

 答案:C

中文翻譯&答案

復活長毛象救地球?

  長毛象是一種巨大、像大象一樣的生物,生活在最後一個冰河時期。由於環境暖化以及人類狩獵的綜合影響,它在四千年前就絕種了。然而,科學家希望讓它 ── 或者更確切地說,它和亞洲象的混種 ── 從滅絕中再活過來。哈佛大學的一組研究人員與美國新創公司 Colossal Biosciences 打算透過結合亞洲象的胚胎與冷凍長毛象的 DNA,來利用基因編輯修改亞洲象的胚胎。這些胚胎將在人造子宮或代孕大象體內生長,直到發育成「混種長毛象」。

  其目的不是出於單純好奇而要讓已滅絕的物種復活;它實際上是對抗氣候變遷使命的一部分。當長毛象在這片土地上漫遊時,牠們撞倒樹木並有助於在地面上保持一層薄薄的草。這能防止地面變得太過溫暖,從而保護永凍層(地表下堅硬、凍結的地層)。在沒有長毛象的情況下,永凍層可能會融化並釋出大量的碳到大氣中。希望新的長毛象群可以扭轉這個趨勢。

  不過,這項計畫並非沒有批評者。有些人認為,干涉自然在倫理上是不對的,並且最好花時間和金錢保護目前瀕臨滅絕的物種。其他人則爭論道,如果新的長毛象被重新引入已適應了過去四千年不斷變化之環境的土地,我們真的不知道會發生什麼事。還有一些人表示,考慮到需要的混種長毛象數量十分龐大,該計畫實在太不切實際了。只有時間才能證明混種長毛象的結果會是如何。

 

1.    本文的主要目的為何?

(A)  提供有關長毛象歷史的資訊。

(B)  對干擾自然世界所帶來的危險提出警告。

(C)  介紹一個可能有用但有爭議的想法。

(D)  討論關於氣候變遷的不同理論。

答案:     C

2.    根據本文,長毛象從地球表面消失是因為地球溫度一直在變得 ___1___ 以及牠們被人類 ___2___。

答案:     1. warmer (and warmer) /  higher (and higher) 2.  hunted

 

3.    根據本文,請勾選人們反對使長毛象復活的原因。

反對意見

勾選

這樣做在道德上是錯誤的。

V

使長毛象復活的計畫不切實際。

V

長毛象會摧毀許多樹木和地面。

 

永凍層可能會融化並釋放大量的碳到大氣中。

 

目前尚不清楚新的長毛象將如何影響已有巨大改變的環境。

V

 

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單字片語整理

Words in Use
absence
[ˋæbsns]
n. 缺席;缺乏
combination
[͵kɑmbəˋneʃən]
n. 結合,聯合
prevent
[prɪˋvɛnt]
vt. 阻止;預防,避免
reverse
[rɪˋvɝs]
vt. 推翻;使反向
n. 相反;(硬幣、文件等的)背面
a. 顛倒的,相反的
controversial
[͵kɑntrəˋvɝʃəl]
a. 有爭議的
layer
[ˋleɚ]
n. 層
vt. 按層排列 / 擺放
interfere
[͵ɪntɚˋfɪr]
vi. 干預;妨礙
artificial
[͵ɑrtəˋfɪʃəl]
a. 人造的;虛偽的,不真誠的
endanger
[ɪnˋdendʒɚ]
.vt. 使有危險,危及
carbon
[ˋkɑrbən]
n. 碳
extinct
[ɪkˋstɪŋkt]
a. 絕種的
extinction
[ɪkˋstɪŋkʃən]
n. 絕種
intention
[ɪnˋtɛnʃən]
n. 意圖
circumstances
n. (抽象)環境(常用複數,常與介 詞 under 並用)
hybrid
[ˋhaɪbrɪd]
n. (動 / 植)混種;混合物;油電混合動力車
a. (動 / 植)混種的;混合的;油電混合動力車的
impractical
[ɪmˋpræktɪk!]
a. 不切實際的
unrealistic
[͵ʌnrɪəˋlɪstɪk]
adj. 不切實際的
startup
[ˈstɑrtˌʌp]
adj. 新創的 & n. 新創公司
embryo
[ˋɛmbrɪ͵o]
n. 胚胎
womb
[wum]
n. 子宮
surrogate
[ˋsɝəgɪt]
adj. 代理的,替代的
permafrost
[ˋpɝmə͵frɔst]
n. 永久凍土(層)
thaw
[θɔ]
vi. 融化,解凍
ethically
[ˋɛθɪklɪ]
adv. 道德上地
reintroduce
[͵riɪntrəˋdjus]
vt. 重新引進
endangered
[ɪnˋdendʒɚd]
adj. 瀕臨絕種的
Practical Phrases
adapt (oneself) to + N/V-ing
 (使自己)適應……

Billy finds it very hard to adapt to the hustle and bustle of city life.

比利發現他很難使自己適應都市生活的繁忙。

It’s hard for me to adapt myself to city life.
我很不適應都市生活。

knock... down / knock down...
 將……擊倒

The boxer knocked his opponent down in the first round.
這位拳擊手在第 1 回合就對手擊倒了。

or rather
 更確切地說

We went to the party in Ray’s car, or rather his brother’s.
我們都搭小雷的車去派對,更確切地說,他哥哥的車。

some... others... still others...
 一些⋯⋯一些⋯⋯另一些⋯⋯(用於非限定的三群)

Some people enjoy reading, others like to listen to music, and still others are fond of exercising.
有些人喜歡閱讀,有些人喜歡聽音樂,還有些人喜歡運動。

woolly mammoth
 長毛象,猛瑪象
gene editing
 基因編輯

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Nick Roden
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