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馬桶的知識與蹲馬桶的姿勢(上) Toilet Trivia: Interesting Facts about Toilets and Going to the Bathroom

Toilet Trivia: Interesting Facts about Toilets and Going to the Bathroom
7/26 解析英語

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馬桶的知識與蹲馬桶的姿勢 Toilet Trivia: Interesting Facts about Toilets and Going to the Bathroom
(全英文講解) 馬桶是我們生活中不可或缺的一部分,與文明的其他部分一樣
>> 貓狗寶貝大節日! A Day to Celebrate Your Furry Friends

混合題型  (全英文講解) 

        They are something that we take for granted but generally don’t talk about much— except when they are out of order. However, toilets are an essential part of our lives, and along with the rest of civilization, they have evolved over millennia. Here is a brief history of these devices.

The Early Days
        Prior to roughly 10,000 years ago, no urgency existed to build toilets. Back then, people were hunter-gatherers, nomads roaming in search of food. Once people started forming civilizations, though, they couldn’t just poop in fields and move on—they had to live with the stinky stuff! Historians tell us that the Mesopotamians created the first simple toilets about 4,500 or more years ago. These were brick chairs coated with a water-repellent material. The toilets were situated over pits, where human waste was held. Toilets incorporating the use of water are believed to have appeared in the Indus Valley and on the island of Crete 1,000 years or more later.

Flush Toilets
        The early toilets of the Indus Valley and Crete required people to manually pour water into them to wash the waste away. The first toilet with a flushing mechanism was made by a British writer named John Harington in the late 1500s. However, his invention did not gain widespread popularity because people at that time largely preferred to use chamber pots, which were metal or ceramic containers. After pooping into the small, portable pots, people simply emptied them where they could, often in the streets outside their homes. Flushable toilets gradually caught on thanks to Alexander Cumming. Two centuries after Harington’s invention, Cumming used an S-shaped pipe, which helped reduce the odor of the sewage. His design laid the foundation for the modern toilet.

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>> 馬桶的知識與蹲馬桶的姿勢(下) Toilet Trivia: Interesting Facts about Toilets and Going to the Bathroom

單字片語整理

Words in Use
wash
[wɑʃ]
n. 洗濯(常用單數)
vt. 清洗;沖走
mechanism
[ˋmɛkə͵nɪzəm]
n. 機械裝置;制度,體制;機制
container
[kənˋtenɚ]
n. 容器
portable
[ˋportəb!]
a. 可攜帶的,手提的
civilization
[͵sɪv!əˋzeʃən]
n. 文明(不可數)
flush
[flʌʃ]
.vt. 沖(馬桶)
vi. 沖(馬桶);臉紅
n. 沖(馬桶);紅暈
evolve
[ɪˋvɑlv]
vi. 進化 ; 發展為
stinky
[ˋstɪŋkɪ]
a. 臭的
incorporate
[ɪnˋkɔrpə͵ret]
vt. 使結合,合併
essential
[ɪˋsɛnʃəl]
a. 必要的,不可或缺的
n. 要素,要點(常用複數)
roam
[rom]
vt. & n. & vi. 漫步
urgency
[ˋɝdʒənsɪ]
n. . 緊急(不可數)
odor
[ˋodɚ]
n. (不好的)氣味
manually
[ˋmænjʊəlɪ]
adv. 手動操作地
Practical Phrases
go in search of...
 去搜尋 / 尋找……

Sean went in search of a good doctor to treat his father’s illness.
尚恩到處去尋找能治療父親疾病的良醫。

take (sb/sth) for granted
 認為(某人 / 某事物)是理所當然的

Larry thought he had been working hard all year round, so he took it for granted that he would get a year-end bonus at work.
賴瑞認為他一年到頭都很努力,因此他認為自己會拿到年終 獎金是理所當然的事

lay a foundation for...
 為……打好地基 / 奠下基礎

First the workers laid the foundation. Then they built the walls.
首先工人們打好地基,然後把牆砌起來。

prior to...
 在……之前

Make sure you have the report ready prior to the meeting.
務必確定你會議之前要把報告準備好。

catch on
 流行起來 • The outfit that you designed

內容皆出自《常春藤解析英語》與《常春藤生活英語》
2022/10/16 00:00 前購買即享
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作者

Brian Foden
Brian Foden
Every failure is a step to success.