With the evolution of the toilet, there have been two different paths—one of the sitting kind and the other of the squatting type. The former is common in the Western world, particularly in North America and the United Kingdom, where squat toilets are rare. At the same time, the latter is often seen in many parts of Asia and Africa, and even some regions of Southern and Eastern Europe. So, the question arises: “Which is the more effective, healthier way to go to the bathroom?” There has been much debate—and research—on this matter.
(1)Interestingly, while many people believe sitting toilets to be more modern and an improvement on squat toilets, there is a strong case to be made that squat toilets are the better choice. (2)In one experiment, an Israeli researcher measured the average time it took subjects to empty their bowels♦ using sitting toilets versus squat toilets. It was found that the average time it took while squatting (51 seconds) was shorter than what was needed on a 42-centimeter-high sitting toilet by 79 seconds. (3)Studies have also determined that people experienced less abdominal strain and discomfort while squatting.
(4)The research findings clearly indicate there are benefits to squatting. (5)This is likely due to the fact that the angle created when a person squats allows for a straighter, more direct path for waste to travel from the rectum to the anus.(6)Some even recommend that people who prefer sitting toilets use a stool or some other type of modification to place their feet on to make the angle closer to that of a squat position.
1. In what order is the information about toilets of different cultures organized in the Day 1 passage? (單選題)
(A) In order of time.
(B) By cause and effect.
(C) From the West to the East.
(D) With a problem-solution organization.
2. Please complete the form with the information contained in the Day 1 passage.(填空)
The Earliest Toilets
- They were invented by __a.__.
- When the first model was created, people didn’t use it but opted for __c.__.
- __d.__ helped popularize the use of flush toilets.
3. Please fill in the blanks with the information about the Israeli researcher’s study.(填空)
On average, bowel movements on squat toilets took the participants __(a)__ seconds, while they spent __(b)__ seconds using sitting ones.
4. Some sentences in the Day 2 passage are numbered(1)through(6). Please write down the that point out why squatting is better than sitting. (簡答)
_____ & _____
2. a. the Mesopotamians b. human waste was held c. chamber pots d. Alexander Cumming
3. (a) 51 (b) 130