Viennese coffee house culture is a unique part of Austrian life. It originated in the 17th century, when coffee was first introduced to Vienna by the Turks. The first coffee houses were established in the city shortly after the second Turkish siege in 1683. It has been said that a bag of Turkish coffee beans __1__ by the defeated Turks when they retreated was the basis of these coffee houses.
Over the centuries, Viennese coffee houses have become more than just places to drink coffee. They are also social hubs __2__ people can come to relax, read, write, or people-watch. Traditional coffee houses are characterized by their elegant décor, marble tabletops, and Thonet chairs. One of the most important aspects of Viennese coffee house culture is the concept of gemütlichkeit, a German word that can be translated as coziness or a feeling of being comfortable in a familiar environment. Another important aspect is the wide __3__ of coffee available. There are many coffee specialties, such as the Einspänner (a coffee with whipped cream) and the Fiaker (a coffee with rum and whipped cream). And of course, no Viennese coffee house would be complete __4__ a selection of pastries and cakes.