無法抹滅的傷痛:多瑙河畔之鞋 A Memorial to Jews Murdered in Budapest in World War II

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無法抹滅的傷痛:多瑙河畔之鞋 A Memorial to Jews Murdered in Budapest in World War II
在歐洲最美麗的河流之一 ── 多瑙河的河岸上,可以找到提醒著令人不寒而慄的猶太人大屠殺的物品。
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圖片來源:Konoplytska / Shutterstock.com

目錄 / Words for Reference / Practical Phrases / Words in Use / More to Learn / Grammar Tips / 中文翻譯&答案

  World War I and World War II were the defining events of the 20th century, killing perhaps 100 million people in Europe, Africa, and Asia. Some six million of the victims were ethnic Jews, who were systematically hunted and murdered by the German Nazi party in an attempt to eradicate them. A chilling reminder of the Holocaust, as that evil strategy is known today, can be found on the banks of one of Europe’s loveliest rivers, the Danube.
  A walk along the Danube Promenade in Budapest, the capital of Hungary, reveals a stark testimony to the savage treatment of the Jews. Sixty pairs of cast-iron shoes made in a 1940s style, with toes pointing into the river, greet visitors strolling along the riverside. They are a haunting reminder of the atrocity that occurred there in the winter of 1944-1945.
  Hungary was one of the more than a dozen European countries which were controlled directly or indirectly by Nazi Germany from 1939 until the end of the war in 1945. The local Hungarian government at the time shared Adolph Hitler’s vision of exterminating all Jewish people. Members of that government, the Arrow Cross party, lined Jews up along the waterfront. These captive Jews were ordered to remove their shoes and were then shot so that their bodies fell into the water to be washed downstream out of Budapest. The shoes, which were valuable during the war, were taken by the murderers to sell or use for themselves.
  The row of iron high-heels, loafers, work boots, and baby shoes are a testament to the merciless forces of anti-Semitism. The work of director Can Togay and sculptor Gyula Pauer, Shoes on the Danube Bank serves as a sober reminder of the Holocaust for all to see.
1. What is this passage mainly about?
(A) Whether World War I or World War II was worse.
(B) The spread of Nazi power during World War II.
(C) The 
resistance in Hungary to Nazi Germany.
(D) A chilling example of Nazi anti-Semitism.
2. What does the word atrocity” in the second paragraph most likely mean?

(A) Unexpected result.
(B) Cruel behavior.
(C) Historic significance.
(D) Little-known fact.
3. According to the passage, what did the murderers do with the shoes that the captive Jews were ordered to take off?
(A) They threw them into the water to be washed downstream.
(B) They made them artwork along the Danube Promenade.
(C) They used them to greet their visitors.
(D) They either sold them or used them.
4. Which of the following is NOT discussed in the passage?
(A) The death 
toll of Jews during World War II.
(B) The extent of Nazi power during World War II.
(C) What happened to Hungary at the end of World War II.
(D) Why the Danube Promenade victims removed their shoes.

▲圖片來源:Alla Simacheva / Shutterstock.com

Words for Reference

 the Holocaust  二次大戰納粹對猶太人的大屠殺
 holocaust n. 大屠殺;浩劫
 promenade n. 海濱步道
 stark a. 鮮明的;明顯的
 cast-iron a. 鑄鐵製的
 atrocity n. 殘暴行為
 exterminate vt. 根除,滅絕
 waterfront n.(城市的)濱水區
 downstream adv. 向下游地,順流地
 loafer n. 不用繫鞋帶的便鞋
 a pair of loafers  一雙便鞋
 anti-Semitism n. 反猶太主義
 extent n. 範圍;程度

Practical Phrases

1. in an attempt to V  為了要∕以便……
= in order to V
= in an effort to V
• Passengers screamed in terror when the terrorists took out their guns in an attempt to hijack the plane.
• The candidate visited the voters in an attempt to get their support.

2. line... up / line up...  使……排隊;排列……
 line up  排隊;排成一列
• John lined up some bottles against the wall.
• Hundreds of fans lined up to get the singer’s autograph.

Words in Use

1. defining a. 標誌性的,決定性的
• This significant event will be a defining one in our history.

2. systematically adv. 有系統地
systematic a. 有系統的
• An efficient worker does everything systematically.

3. eradicate vt. 根除,消滅
• It’s virtually impossible to eradicate all the rats in a city.

4. testimony n. 證明;證詞
be a testimony to...  是……的證明
• The judge decided that the witness’s testimony was not reliable.
• The success of our plan is a testimony to the importance of teamwork.

5. savage a. 凶殘的;野蠻的
• Cannibalism is considered savage behavior.
*cannibalism n. 食人;同類相食

6. stroll vi. 散步(= walk)
• Jay strolled around the old town and came to a church that was over a hundred years old.

7. haunting a.(因一種令人憂傷的美麗而)讓人難忘的,縈繞心頭的
haunt vt.(某事)縈繞於心;(鬼魂)經常出沒於
• Joseph was haunted by the memory of the terrible accident.

8. captive a. 被俘虜的
• We hope the captive victims will be set free soon.

9. testament n. 證明,證據
be a testament to...  是……的見證
• Joe’s success is a testament to his years of hard work.

10. merciless a. 冷酷的,無情的
• The merciless terrorists randomly picked people to kill.

11. sober a. 嚴肅的;冷靜的
• While giving his speech, the speaker was in a very sober mood.

12. resistance n. 抗拒;抵抗力
• The policy suffered strong resistance from the working class.

13. unexpected a. 意想不到的
• This seemingly ordinary plot has an unexpected ending.

14. toll n. 傷亡人數
the death toll  死亡人數
• The death toll was initially reported at around 300.

More to Learn

memorial n. 紀念碑;紀念館 & a. 紀念的,追悼的
• The villagers set up a memorial after the war.
• The memorial hospital is named after its founder.
字首 mem- 表「紀念;記憶」,常見單字介紹如下:
a. memorable [ `mEmJrJbL ] a. 值得紀念的;難忘的
• We took hundreds of photos during our memorable trip to Egypt.
b. memorabilia [ :mEmJrJ`bIlIJ ] n. 紀念品;收藏品
• Even today, a lot of people are interested in collecting Elvis Presley memorabilia.
c. memoir [ `mEmwar ] n. 回憶錄(常用複數)
• Bill Clinton published his memoirs in 2004.
比爾‧柯林頓於 2004 年出版了自己的回憶錄。
d. memo [ `mEmo ] n. 備忘條;備忘錄
(為 memorandum [ :mEmJ`rAndJm ] 的縮寫)
• May wrote a memo for the boss concerning the date of the meeting.
e. memory [ `mEmJrI ] n. 記憶(力)
• Ian cannot get rid of the painful memory from his childhood.
f. memorize [ `mEmJ:rZIz ] vt. 記住;背熟
• If you want to study chemistry, you need to memorize the periodic table of elements.

Grammar Tips

These captive Jews were ordered to remove their shoes and were then shot so that their bodies fell into the water to be washed downstream out of Budapest.
介紹 “so that...” 與 “so... that...” 的用法
※ so that + S + V  如此∕以便……
= in order that + S + V
a. so that / in order that 為表示「目的」的副詞連接詞,引導副詞子句以修飾主要子句,且 so that / in order that 所引導的副詞子句通常用簡單式,或要有助動詞 may、can 或 will。

• Whenever Julie goes shopping, she takes a list so that she doesn’t forget anything.
b. 在 so that... 用法中,可省略 that 而單獨使用 so,但 in order that... 中的 that 則不可省略。
• Paul works hard so (that) he may give his family a better life.
c. so that / in order that 所引導的副詞子句主詞若與主要子句的主詞相同時,此副詞子句可改為副詞片語 so as to V,即等於 (in order) to V。
• Jim set out for the airport early in the morning so as to avoid any traffic jams.
※ so + Adj./Adv. + that + S + V  
a. 此句構用來表示某事物達到某種程度而導致的結果,so 為副詞,表「如此地」,其後接形容詞或副詞;that 則為副詞連接詞,引導的副詞子句修飾其前的 so。that 在此用法中可予以省略,或用逗號來取代。
• David worked so hard that he eventually became a successful businessman.
• The lady was so elegant(,) I couldn’t take my eyes off her.
b. 若將 so 及所引導的詞類置於句首時,後面要採倒裝句構。
• So nice is Mandy that everyone likes her.



  第一次世界大戰和第二次世界大戰是二十世紀的標誌性事件,在歐洲、非洲和亞洲造成大約一億人喪生。這些受害者中約有六百萬是種族上的猶太人,他們被企圖消滅猶太人的德國納粹黨系統性地獵殺。在歐洲最美麗的河流之一 ── 多瑙河的河岸上,可以找到提醒著令人不寒而慄的猶太人大屠殺(那個邪惡計謀如今的稱呼)的物品。
  在匈牙利首都布達佩斯的多瑙河河濱步道走一趟就能看到猶太人被凶殘對待的鮮明證據。六十雙 1940 年代風格、鞋尖指向多瑙河的鑄鐵鞋迎接著河畔漫步的旅客。它們讓人回想起 1944 年至 1945 年冬天在那裡發生、令人難以忘懷的暴行。
  匈牙利是納粹德國從 1939 年到 1945 年戰爭結束時直接或間接控制的十幾個歐洲國家之一。當時的匈牙利當地政府與阿道夫.希特勒共同擁有滅絕所有猶太人的願景。那個政府(箭十字黨)的成員讓猶太人在河畔排成一列。這些被俘虜的猶太人被命令脫下鞋子,接著被射殺,這樣他們的屍體才會掉入水中以便被沖到下游,離開布達佩斯。這些在戰爭中很有價值的鞋子則被凶手拿去販售或自己使用。
  一排排的鐵高跟鞋、平底便鞋、工作靴及嬰兒鞋是反猶太主義冷酷無情之暴力的證明。《多瑙河畔之鞋》是導演 Can Togay 和雕塑家 Gyula Pauer 的作品,在此處嚴正地提醒世人這場對猶太人的大屠殺。
1. 本文的主旨為何?
(A) 第一次世界大戰還是第二次世界大戰比較糟糕。
(B) 第二次世界大戰期間納粹勢力的擴展。
(C) 匈牙利對納粹德國的抵抗。
(D) 納粹反猶太主義一個令人毛骨悚然的例子。
2. 第二段中的 “atrocity” 一詞最有可能是什麼意思?
(A) 意外的結果。 (B) 殘忍的行為。
(C) 歷史性的意義。 (D) 鮮為人知的事實。
3. 根據本文,凶手對被俘虜的猶太人被下令脫掉的鞋子做了什麼處理?
(A) 他們將這些鞋丟進水中以被沖到下游。
(B) 他們將這些鞋做成多瑙河河濱步道的藝術品。
(C) 他們使用這些鞋來迎接他們的訪客。
(D) 他們不是將這些鞋賣掉就是拿來穿。
4. 本文未討論到以下哪一項?
(A) 第二次世界大戰期間猶太人的死亡人數。
(B) 第二次世界大戰期間納粹的勢力範圍。
(C) 第二次世界大戰結束時匈牙利發生的事。
(D) 多瑙河河濱步道受害者脫掉鞋子的原因。
1. D 2. B 3. D 4. C

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