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走跳美國,小費要有 Tipping in the US

Angela分享,在美國大概要給15~20%不等的小費
#閱讀測驗 #國外 #休閒旅遊 #飲食
5/10 解析英語

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走跳美國,小費要有 Tipping in the US
這整個情況是如何開始的呢?
>> 比薩斜塔其實是建築業的黑歷史!?The Leaning Tower of Pisa: From Flawed Construction to Tourist Marvel

文章主講 Angela, Wesley

One of the first things travelers to the US note on their return is the odd practice of tipping. It’s generally not mandatory, though some places will include a set service charge. It’s also generally expected, since restaurants are allowed to pay waitstaff less than the minimum wage with the assumption that they will be making tips. It also means that a meal ends with a math problem, which is not what most people enjoy when dining out.

去美國的旅客在返鄉時會最先提到的其中一件事就是給小費這個奇特的慣例。這通常不是強制性的,不過有些地方會加收一筆固定的服務費。人們也被普遍期望給予小費,因為在桌邊服務人員會獲得小費的假定之下,餐廳支付他們的薪水可以少於最低工資。這也意味著吃一頓飯會以一道數學題作結,這是多數人外食時不喜歡的。

tip [ tɪp ] vi. & vt. 給小費 & n. 小費
waitstaff [ ˈwetˌstæf ] n. 餐飲服務人員
dine out  外出用餐

How did this whole situation begin? Interestingly enough, it started in England. Back in the 16th century, there was a custom of giving a “vail” to servants. Visitors at wealthy estates would give tips to various members of the household, like footmen and valets, upon their departure for the extra work that they caused them. This eventually moved from the homes of the aristocracy to hotels and restaurants.

這整個情況是如何開始的呢?十分有趣的是,給小費這件事是從英國開始的。早先在十六世紀時,有一個給僕從賞錢(當時稱 “vail”)的習俗。到有錢人家莊園拜訪的人會在離開時給予這一家的各種人員(像是接應的男僕和貼身僕從)小費,作為自己帶給他們額外工作的補償。這個習俗最後從貴族家庭轉移至旅館及餐廳。

estate [ ɪˈstet / ˈɛtet ] n.(在鄉村有宅邸的)莊園∕大片私有土地
footman [ ˈfʊtmən ] n.(舊時應門、通報訪客姓名等的)男僕
valet [ væˈle / ˈvælɪt ] n.(男子的)貼身男僕

走跳美國,小費要有 Tipping in the US
An illustration of the interior of a Pullman dining car. | Library of Congress (source: politico.com)

Americans picked up on this trend in the mid-1800s, when more people started traveling abroad. Upon their return, they would tip at restaurants to show they were more cultured than those less well-traveled. Despite some backlash, tipping became the norm in the US. Around the same time, however, the practice faded away in the UK.

美國人在十九世紀中更多人開始出國時注意到這股風潮。回國時,他們會在餐廳給小費,以顯示他們比那些較不常旅行的人更有文化。儘管有一些抵制聲浪,給小費這件事仍成為美國的常態。然而約莫在此同時,這項慣例在英國卻逐漸消失。

backlash [ ˈbækˌlæʃ ] n.(尤指對社會或政治事件的)抵制∕強烈反對

The custom of tipping became even more entrenched in the 1960s, when a law was passed making it legal for restaurants to pay tipped employees a lower minimum wage. This essentially made diners responsible for the wages of waiters, and made tipping more or less mandatory.

給小費的習俗在 1960 年代甚至又變得更加根深柢固,當時通過了一條法案,使餐廳可以支付收小費的員工較低的最低薪資這件事合法化。這基本上讓用餐者負擔了服務員的薪資,也使得給小費幾乎成了義務。

entrenched [ ɪnˈtrɛntʃt ] a. 根深柢固的(常含貶義)
more or less...  幾乎∕大約……

The debate over fair wages and tipping remains an issue in the US today. The current federal law in the US is that if a waiter makes US$30 in tips a month, then they can be paid as low as US$2.13 an hour. However, some states have passed their own laws that guarantee waiters the state’s standard minimum wage.

合理薪資和給小費的爭論至今在美國仍是一項議題。現行的美國聯邦法規定,假如一名服務員一個月賺得三十美元小費,那麼他們的支薪就能低至每小時 2.13 美元。然而,有些州已通過自己的法律,保障服務員能獲得該州的標準最低薪資。

debate [ dɪˈbet ] n. 討論,爭論
federal [ ˈfɛdərəl ] a. 聯邦的
guarantee [ ˌgærənˈti ] vt. 保障,使必然得到∕發生

延伸學習|介紹 issue 作上述解釋時常用的搭配用法

  • take issue with...  不同意∕不贊同……
    take issue with sb over sth  在某事上不贊同某人;針對某事向某人提出異議
  • make an issue (out) of sth  就某事挑起爭端
  • have issues with...  在……方面有困難
  • at issue  問題的焦點

 

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本篇文章取自《解析英語 110/5/13》。
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單字片語整理

Words in Use
tip
[tɪp]
vt. & vi. (給)小費
n. 尖端;小費;祕訣
estate
[ɪsˋtet]
n. 地產;資產,財產
debate
[dɪˋbet]
n. & vt. & vi. 辯論
federal
[ˋfɛdərəl]
adj. 聯邦的
guarantee
[͵gærənˋti]
n. 保證
vt. 保證,擔保
Practical Phrases
dine out
 外出進餐

Who are you going to dine out with tonight?
你今晚要跟誰一塊兒外出用餐

take issue with sb over sth
 與某人爭論某事
= disagree with sb over sth

Susan took issue with Peter over who should be responsible for the mistake.
針對誰應對這個錯負責,蘇珊與彼得有所爭論

be at issue 
 在爭論中
= be in disagreement

What is at issue now is when we should deal with the problem.
現在受爭議的問題是,我們應要何時處理這個問題。

本篇內容出自《常春藤解析/生活英語雜誌》,
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作者

Lauren McCarthy
Lauren McCarthy
Your Attitude determine your direction.
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