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✶「洞」察起司上的洞洞 The Hole Mystery of Swiss Cheese

The Hole Mystery of Swiss Cheese
#篇章結構 #飲食
5/22 解析英語

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「洞」察起司上的洞洞 The Hole Mystery of Swiss Cheese
瑞士的專家得出結論,不小心被加進牛奶的乾草微粒是產生起司洞洞的原因。
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篇章結構 | 無挖空完整文章(請點我)

        The iconic image that comes to most people’s minds when they think of cheese is a pale-yellow wedge with holes of various sizes in it. However, many people don’t know that this image represents a specific type of Swiss cheese called Emmental.

        You might have wondered how this kind of cheese ended up with so many holes. Scientists have also been intrigued by this phenomenon and have come up with a few theories.

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        About 100 years ago, scientists first theorized that the holes in Emmental cheese, called “eyes” in the cheese industry, were formed by bacteria added to milk during the cheese-making process. __1__ These bubbles get trapped in the cheese as it hardens, forming the famous eyes of Emmental cheese.

        However, shoppers have noticed that eyes have been becoming smaller and fewer over the years. __2__ After they researched the topic further, a completely new theory came about.

        __3__ They explained that the extremely tiny pieces of hay would often end up in the buckets as cows were getting milked and make small holes that grew bigger as the cheese slowly matured. However, in the modern milking industry, there is less of a chance for hay to fall into milk containers. __4__ Scientists may not have agreed upon what causes the holes in Emmental cheese, but that doesn’t keep people from enjoying its mild savory taste.

 

(A)  As a result, current versions of Emmental cheese have far fewer and sometimes smaller eyes.

(B)  The change in the cheese’s form led many scientists to question the original theory.

(C)  As the organisms feed on the lactic acid in milk, they produce bubbles of carbon dioxide gas.

(D)  Experts in Switzerland have concluded that hay particles accidentally added to the milk are what creates the eyes.

 

答案: 1.C 2.B 3.D 4.A


 

 ↓  完整文章版本(無挖空)

        The iconic image that comes to most people’s minds when they think of cheese is a pale-yellow wedge with holes of various sizes in it. However, many people don’t know that this image represents a specific type of Swiss cheese called Emmental.

        You might have wondered how this kind of cheese ended up with so many holes. Scientists have also been intrigued by this phenomenon and have come up with a few theories.

        About 100 years ago, scientists first theorized that the holes in Emmental cheese, called “eyes” in the cheese industry, were formed by bacteria added to milk during the cheese-making process. As the organisms feed on the lactic acid in milk, they produce bubbles of carbon dioxide gas. These bubbles get trapped in the cheese as it hardens, forming the famous eyes of Emmental cheese.

        However, shoppers have noticed that eyes have been becoming smaller and fewer over the years. The change in the cheese’s form led many scientists to question the original theory. After they researched the topic further, a completely new theory came about.

        Experts in Switzerland have concluded that hay particles accidentally added to the milk are what creates the eyes. They explained that the extremely tiny pieces of hay would often end up in the buckets as cows were getting milked and make small holes that grew bigger as the cheese slowly matured. However, in the modern milking industry, there is less of a chance for hay to fall into milk containers. As a result, current versions of Emmental cheese have far fewer and sometimes smaller eyes. Scientists may not have agreed upon what causes the holes in Emmental cheese, but that doesn’t keep people from enjoying its mild savory taste.

單字片語整理

Words in Use
various
[ˋvɛrɪəs]
a. 各式各樣的
represent
[͵rɛprɪˋzɛnt]
vt. 代表;象徵
specific
[spɪˋsɪfɪk]
a. 特定的;特有的(與介詞 to 並用);明確的
theorize
[ˋθɪə͵raɪz]
vt. 提出/建立理論
process
[ˋprɑsɛs]
vt. 處理
n. 過程
completely
[kəmˋplitlɪ]
adv. 徹底地
extremely
[ɪkˋstrimlɪ]
adv. 極端地;非常地
mature
[məˋtjʊr]
adj. 成熟的
vi. 成熟
mind
[maɪnd]
vt. & vi. 介意
n. 頭腦
iconic
[aɪˋkɑnɪk]
a. 代表性的,指標性的
savory
[ˋsevərɪ]
a. 美味可口的
milk
[mɪlk]
n. 牛奶(不可數)
vt. 擠奶
intrigue
[ɪnˋtrig]
vt. 激起……的好奇心
n. . 陰謀
wedge
[wɛdʒ]
n. 三角形物,楔形物(尤指食物)
Practical Phrases
come to one’s mind
 浮現在腦中

Melvin tends to say the first thing that comes to his mind, even if it's offensive.
馬文常常說出最先浮現在腦海的事,即使很失禮。

end up + V-ing
 到頭來做......,最終/結果/到頭來⋯⋯

I knew you would end up borrowing money from me.

我就知道你最後還是會跟我借錢。

 

1. 第一題空格應選 (C) 

 理由 

a. 本空格在測試對段落語意連貫性的掌握,空格前後 兩句都在說明細菌如何讓起司產生洞洞的理論,可 知空格應也跟這個理論有關。

b. 選項 (C) 表示,當那些生物以牛奶的乳酸為食, 便會產生二氧化碳氣泡,語意連貫,選項中的 organisms(生物)即是前一句的 bacteria(細菌),且選項跟後一句皆提及 bubbles(泡泡), 可知答案應選 (C)。

2. 第二題空格應選 (B)

 理由 

a. 本空格在測試對段落語意連貫性的掌握,前一句提 到起司上的洞洞愈來愈小、愈來愈少,而後一句提 到新理論,可推測空格應與起司的變化和解釋起司 上為何有洞洞的理論有關。

b. 選項 (B) 表示,起司外形的變化讓許多科學家質疑 原本的理論,語意連貫,選項中的 change in the cheese’s form(起司外形的變化)指的即是前一 句提及的起司洞洞變小又變少這件事,且選項中 的 question the original theory(質疑原本的理 論)跟後一句的 a completely new theory came about(一個全新的理論出現了)相呼應,可知答 案應選 (B)。

3. 第三題空格應選 (D)

 理由 

a. 本空格在測試對段落主題句的掌握,前一段最後一 句提到有個全新的理論,後一句提到乾草微粒會讓 起司形成洞洞,可知空格應提及某個新理論,且和 乾草微粒相關。

b. 選項 (D) 表示,瑞士的專家得出結論,不小心被 加進牛奶的乾草微粒是產生起司洞洞的原因,符合 推測且語意連貫,且選項中的 hay particles(乾 草微粒)即為後一句的 extremely tiny pieces of hay(極小的乾草顆粒),可知答案應選 (D)。

4. 第四題空格應選 (A)

 理由 

a. 本空格在測試對段落語意發展的掌握,本段說明起 司會有洞洞是因為乾草微粒掉到牛奶桶裡,而前一 句提到現代乳業中,乾草比較不會掉進牛奶桶,可 推測本句應在說明乾草不太會掉到桶裡會有什麼結 果。

b. 選項 (A) 表示,因此,現今的艾曼塔起司洞洞少很 多,有時洞洞也更小,語意連貫,前一句所提及的 乾草不太會掉進桶內跟選項中的 have far fewer and sometimes smaller eyes(洞洞少很多,有 時洞洞也更小)為因果關係,可知答案應選 (A)。

 

 

harden [ ˋhɑrdn ] vi. & vt.(使)變硬

You’d better eat the bread when it’s still warm. It quickly hardens as it cools down.

你最好趁麵包還溫熱時食用。麵包冷掉很快就變硬。

某些形容詞或名詞後可加 -en 形成動詞,表「(使) 變得......」,如本文中的不及物動詞 harden 就是形 容詞 hard(硬的)+ -en 所形成。其他常見的單字介紹如下:

a. Adj. + -en

bright + -en = brighten

(使)明亮

dark + -en = darken

(使)變暗

loose + -en = loosen

(使)變鬆

tight + -en = tighten

(使)變緊

broad + -en = broaden

(使)變寬/擴大

wide + -en = widen

(使)加寬

deep + -en = deepen

(使)加深

thick + -en = thicken

(使)變厚

short + -en = shorten

(使)變短

straight + -en = straighten(使)變直

soft + -en = soften

(使)變軟

sharp + -en = sharpen

(使)鋒利

weak + -en = weaken

(使)衰弱

worse + -en = worsen

(使)惡化/變差

• Traveling overseas can broaden your horizons.

去國外旅行可以拓展視野。 

• Grief deepened the lines in Zora’s face.

悲痛使卓拉臉上的皺紋加深了。 

• We should take immediate measures to prevent the situation from worsening.

我們應該採取緊急措施以避免情況惡化。 

b. N + -en

height + -en
= heighten(使)提高

length + -en
= lengthen(使)變長

haste + -en
= hasten
加快,加緊

strength + -en = strengthen 增強

fright + -en
= frighten
使驚恐

threat + -en
= threaten
威脅

• Proper care will lengthen the life of a device.

妥當的照護可以延長設備的壽命。 

• The storm continued to strengthen and became a typhoon.

那個風暴持續增強,形成颱風。 

 

 

大多數人想到起司時,他們腦海中浮現的代表性形象是 一個淡黃色的三角狀物體,上頭有各式大小的洞洞。然而, 很多人並不知道這個形象所展現的是特定的一種名為艾曼塔 的瑞士起司。你可能曾感到好奇,這種起司最終怎麼會有這 麼多的洞洞。科學家也對這種現象很感興趣,因而想出了幾種理論。

大約一百年前,科學家首先提出理論,艾曼塔起司上的 洞洞 ── 其在起司產業中稱為 “eyes” ── 是由起司製程中 被添加到牛奶中的細菌所形成的。當那些生物以牛奶中的乳 酸為食,便會產生二氧化碳氣泡。起司變硬時,這些氣泡便 被困在起司中,形成艾曼塔起司著名的洞洞。

然而,顧客注意到,多年來,洞洞變得愈來愈小、愈來 愈少。起司外形的變化讓許多科學家質疑原本的理論。他們 進一步研究該議題之後,一個全新的理論出現了。

瑞士的專家得出結論,不小心被加進牛奶的乾草微粒是 產生起司洞洞的原因。他們解釋道,在擠牛乳時,極小的乾 草顆粒通常最終會掉入桶中,產生小孔洞,隨著起司慢慢成 熟,小孔洞逐漸擴大。然而,在現代乳業中,乾草比較不會 掉進牛奶桶。因此,現今的艾曼塔起司洞洞少很多,有時洞洞也更小。科學家可能對於是什麼造成艾曼塔起司上會有洞 洞的意見不一致,但這並不妨礙人們享用其微鹹的滋味。

 

回饋與建議

為了提供更好的閱讀體驗與學習感受,有任何建議或問題歡迎留言讓我們知道,感謝~
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作者

Niall Longobardi
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