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✶為什麼船底要塗成紅色? Red beneath the Sea

Red beneath the Sea
#克漏字 #環境·保育 #數位·科技·科學
12/18 解析英語

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為什麼船底要塗成紅色? Red beneath the Sea
一項潛藏的歷史傳統進一步促成了對紅色的偏好,且至今仍相當受歡迎。
>> ✶無繩跳繩: 小空間也能大燃脂 Jumping without the Rope
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    When large ships carry a lot of cargo, they sit quite low in the water. However, if a ship is __1__, you’ll likely be able to see its lower hull, which will probably be painted red. There are several reasons why special paint of this color is used for marine vessels.

    First and foremost, the red paint shields the underside of the ship. __2__, the hull will eventually become covered with marine organisms such as barnacles, algae, and mollusks, which will cause damage to the metal in the long run. Red marine paint gets its red color from copper oxide. This material __3__ a biocide, a chemical compound that repels and prevents the growth of organisms. In addition, the paint guards the metal of the hull against corrosion from salt water, which can greatly weaken the structure and cause leaks.

 

>> ✶首次手機通話 劃下通訊史重要的一「話」Ringing in a New Era: The First Cellphone Call

    Another reason for the red color is to indicate a vessel’s load status. The more the red paint is visible above the waterline, the lighter the load is. Having the hull painted red can also be helpful in case of an __4__ by increasing a ship’s visibility. If a ship has capsized or is sinking, the red color of the hull contrasts with the blue or green color of the water. This gives other ships or rescue aircraft a better chance of __5__ it.
    An
underlying historical tradition further contributes to the preference for the color red. With its origins dating back over 2,000 years and popularity to this day, we are likely to continue seeing hulls painted red for a long time to come.

 

1. (A) humid (B) external (C) scarce (D) empty

2. (A) Once raised high (B) If left unprotected (C) After found flooded (D) When kept balanced

3. (A) acts as (B) occurs to (C) calls for (D) gives away

4. (A) adjustment (B) opportunity (C) emergency (D) investigation

5. (A) repairing (B) locating (C) disguising (D) surrounding

 

答案: 1.D 2.B 3.A 4.C 5.B

 


 

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    When large ships carry a lot of cargo, they sit quite low in the water. However, if a ship is empty, you’ll likely be able to see its lower hull, which will probably be painted red. There are several reasons why special paint of this color is used for marine vessels.

    First and foremost, the red paint shields the underside of the ship. If left unprotected, the hull will eventually become covered with marine organisms such as barnacles, algae, and mollusks, which will cause damage to the metal in the long run. Red marine paint gets its red color from copper oxide. This material acts as a biocide, a chemical compound that repels and prevents the growth of organisms. In addition, the paint guards the metal of the hull against corrosion from salt water, which can greatly weaken the structure and cause leaks.

  Another reason for the red color is to indicate a vessel’s load status. The more the red paint is visible above the waterline, the lighter the load is. Having the hull painted red can also be helpful in case of an emergency by increasing a ship’s visibility. If a ship has capsized or is sinking, the red color of the hull contrasts with the blue or green color of the water. This gives other ships or rescue aircraft a better chance of locating it.
    An
underlying historical tradition further contributes to the preference for the color red. With its origins dating back over 2,000 years and popularity to this day, we are likely to continue seeing hulls painted red for a long time to come.

單字片語整理

Words in Use
cargo
[ˋkɑrgo]
n. 貨物
shield
[ʃild]
vt. 保護
n. 盾牌
compound
[kɑmˋpaʊnd]
n. 化合物
repel
[rɪˋpɛl]
vt. 驅除
corrosion
[kəˋroʒən]
n. 腐蝕
visible
[ˋvɪzəb!]
a. 肉眼可見的;顯而易見的
contrast
[ˋkɑn͵træst]
n. 對比,差異
vt. 對比
underlying
[͵ʌndɚˋlaɪɪŋ]
a. 在下面的;隱含的;根本的
hull
[hʌl]
n. 船身,船殼
preference
[ˋprɛfərəns]
n. 偏愛
marine
[məˋrin]
n. (美國)海軍陸戰隊士兵
adj. 海洋的
underside
[ˋʌndɚ͵saɪd]
n. 底部,下側
organism
[ˋɔrgən͵ɪzəm]
n. 有機體
algae
[ˋældʒi]
n. 海藻,藻類(複數)
mollusk
[ˋmɑləsk]
n. 軟體動物
oxide
[ˋɑksaɪd]
n. 氧化物
biocide
[ˋbaɪəsaɪd]
n. 生物滅除劑,殺生物劑
waterline
[ˋwɑtɚ͵laɪn]
n. 船的吃水線(指船體與水面相交的線)
capsize
[kæpˋsaɪz]
vi. 翻覆
aircraft
[ˋɛr͵kræft]
n. 飛機,飛行器(單複數同形)
against
[əˋgɛnst]
prep. 反對
Practical Phrases
copper oxide
 氧化銅
first and foremost
 首要的是;首先

There are many ways to stay healthy. First and foremost, you should have a balanced diet.
有許多維持健康的方法。首先,你應該要均衡飲食。

do / cause damage to sb/sth
 對某人 / 事物造成損害

Taking drugs does damage to one's body and mind.
吸毒有害身心。

The flood caused damage to dozens of homes, and many people were left homeless.
那場洪水造成數十間房屋損毀,許多人落得無家可歸。

in the long run
 從長遠來看
= in the long term

The company made big changes to its website, which paid off in the long run.
該公司對其網站做了大幅改變,而最後也有好的成果。

guard A against B
 保護 A 免受 B 的傷害

Mina used sunscreen to guard her skin against the harmful effects of the sun.
蜜娜使用防晒霜來保護皮膚免受陽光的有害影響。

The + 比較級形容詞∕副詞..., the + 比較級形容詞 ∕副詞...
 越⋯⋯,就越⋯⋯
in case of
 萬一發生某事
= in the event of sth

In case of emergency, call this number.

萬一有緊急事件,請打這個號碼。

contribute to...
 引起 / 導致……
= result in
= give rise to

 

1. However, if a ship is empty, you’ll likely be able to see its lower hull, which will probably be painted red.

 理由 

空格前一句提到,大型船隻乘載許多貨物時在水中會沉得相當深, 而本句以有轉折意味的However(然而)開頭,表前後語意相反,故應選 (D) empty,表如果船隻是「空的」,你可能會看到船身的下半部。

2. If left unprotected, the hull will eventually become covered with marine organisms such as barnacles, algae, and mollusks, which...

 理由 

a. 空格後提到,船底最終會被藤壺、藻類和軟體動物等海洋生物覆蓋,到頭來會對金屬造成損壞,可知這些應是船底「如果未受保護」會造成的情況,故選 (B) If left unprotected。

3. This material acts as a biocide, a chemical compound that repels and prevents the growth of organisms.

 理由 

根據語意,氧化銅這種原料「作為」生物滅除劑── 一種驅趕並防止生物生長的化學化合物,故
(A) 項應為正選。

4. Having the hull painted red can also be helpful in case of an emergency by increasing a
ship’s visibility.

 理由 

a. 空格後一句提到,若一艘船翻覆或正在下沉,船底的紅色會與藍色或綠色的海水形成對比,可知船底塗成紅色在「緊急情況」下很有幫助,因為可以增加船隻的能見度,故答案應選 (C)。

5. This gives other ships or rescue aircraft a better chance of locating it.

 理由 

空格前一句提到,如果一艘船翻覆或正在下沉,船底的紅色會與藍色或綠色的海水形成對比,可知空格應填入 (B) locating,表船底的紅色與海水顏色的對比可以提高其他船隻或救援飛機「找到」受難船隻的機會。

 

 

ship   n.(尤指航海的)大船/輪船/艦(航行距離較遠)
The ship crossed the ocean with a load of goods.
這艘船載著貨物橫渡大洋。


除了本文的 ship 和 vessel 外,還有其他表「船」的單字,介紹如下:

a. vessel 可用來統稱所有的船,是較正式的用語。
 The pirates discovered gold on the Spanish vessel.
這群海盜在西班牙艦上發現金子。

b. boat 通常指「中小型的船」,通常出現在沿海地區、湖邊或河邊。

c. ferry 是「渡船,渡輪」,會定時來回某一小段水域,對某些地方的人來說是常見的交通工具
The daily ferry linked the island to the outside world.
一天一班的渡輪連接這座島和外面的世界。

d. yacht  是「快艇,遊艇」,通常以遊玩、運動為目的。
Kent hired a yacht when he was on vacation in Kenting.
肯特到墾丁度假時租了一艘遊艇。

e. canoe 是「獨木舟」,須靠自己划動船槳前進;其船槳通常是單柄單槳,必須要兩手握住槳
在船的一側划動。
We all got soaked to the bone after the canoe flipped over in the river.
獨木舟在河中翻覆後,我們全都溼透了。

 

f. kayak 是「單人小船」,跟獨木舟很像,差別在於它通常只乘載一至兩人,船身是前後有甲板的座艙式船艇,且船槳通常是單柄雙槳。

 

為什麼船底要塗成紅色?

    當大型船隻乘載許多貨物時,它們在水中會沉得相當深。然而,如果船隻是空的,你可能會看到船身的下半部,它大概會被漆成紅色。有幾個原因解釋為什麼海洋船隻要使用這種顏色的特殊塗料。

    首先,紅色塗料保護著船的底部。如果不受保護,船底(編按:此處及之後出現的 hull 皆是指前一段提過的 lower hull,為避免重複,因此只用 hull)最終將會被像是藤壺、藻類和軟體動物等海洋生物所覆蓋,到頭來會對金屬造成損壞。紅色海洋塗料的紅色來自於氧化銅。這種原料作為生物滅除劑 ── 一種驅趕並防止生物生長的化學化合物。此外,該塗料能保護船底的金屬免受鹽水的腐蝕,腐蝕可能會大大地使結構變得不結實並導致漏水。

    使用紅色的另一個原因是要顯示船隻的載荷狀態。在吃水線以上可見的紅色塗料越多,表示該船的負載越輕。將船底塗成紅色在緊急情況下也很有幫助,可以增加船隻的能見度。如果一艘船翻覆或正在下沉,船底的紅色會與藍色或綠色的海水形成對比。這提高了其他船隻或救援飛機找到它的機會。

    一項潛藏的歷史傳統進一步促成了對紅色的偏好。有著能追溯至兩千多年前的歷史,且至今仍相當受歡迎,我們很可能會在未來很長一段時間內繼續看到船底被塗成紅色。

本篇內容出自《常春藤解析/生活英語雜誌》,
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