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✶萬中無一的超級味覺者 Are You a Picky Eater or a Supertaster?

Are You a Picky Eater or a Supertaster?
#混合題型 #美食料理
2/16 解析英語

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萬中無一的超級味覺者 Are You a Picky Eater or a Supertaster?
你可能有一些對吃很挑剔的朋友
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中文翻譯(& 答案)

 混合題型 

    You may have some friends who are particular about what they eat. They prefer certain foods and are thus known as picky eaters. However, this aspect of character is not necessarily negative. Picky eaters are common, but research shows that only about 25% of the population qualify as supertasters.

    The term “supertaster” was introduced in the 1990s by Linda Bartoshuk, a researcher of taste perception at the University of Florida. As the term suggests, a supertaster is someone with a sharp sense of taste who experiences the flavors in food more intensely than others. This means that while non-supertasters may be able to swallow foods that they don’t enjoy without significant discomfort, supertasters find certain flavors almost unbearable.

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     The status of being a supertaster is backed by scientific evidence. First, supertasters have a lot more taste buds than non-supertasters. Moreover, among the five major flavor groups (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami), supertasters are especially sensitive to bitterness. This makes them less likely to enjoy coffee, dark chocolate, and bitter-tasting vegetables and fruits.

   Unfortunately, excluding certain foods from one’s diet can have health-related disadvantages. What’s worse, supertasters may use salt to cover up bitter flavors, which may lead to overseasoning and health issues.

   Nevertheless, being a supertaster isn’t all bad news. For one thing, many supertasters tend to stay away from alcohol and cigarettes because of their taste. Thus, they are relatively unlikely to become habitual drinkers or smokers. For another, supertasters are usually mindful of what they eat, so they’re less likely to overeat. Finding out whether you’re a supertaster or just a picky eater may help you take a stand next time someone accuses you of being too fussy about your food.

1. Please write down picky eaters or supertasters based on the information from the passage.(填空)
Features Types of people
More taste buds. _____(a)_____
More sensitive to bitterness. _____(b)_____
Account for more of the population. _____(c)_____
2. What two types of people are supertasters less likely to be?(簡答)
______________________
3. Which of the following are NOT characteristics of supertasters?(多選題)
(A) They eat very small portions at each meal.
(B) They pay careful attention to what they eat.
(C) They cannot sense all the five flavor groups.
(D) They may add something to change the flavor of bitter foods.
(E) They can notice certain flavors that most people may not perceive.

 

答案:1.(a) supertasters (b) supertasters (c) picky eaters
2.Habitual drinkers and smokers.
3.A、C

單字片語整理

Words in Use
particular
[pɚˋtɪkjəlɚ]
adj. 特別的;挑剔的
aspect
[ˋæspɛkt]
n. 方面
status
[ˋstetəs]
n. 地位,身分;狀態,情況
perception
[pɚˋsɛpʃən]
n. 感知,感覺(不可數);洞察力(不可數); 觀點(可數)
exclude
[ɪkˋsklud]
vt. 排除;不包括
disadvantage
[͵dɪsədˋvæntɪdʒ]
n. 缺點
alcohol
[ˋælkə͵hɔl]
n. 酒;酒精(指各種含酒精的酒類,如啤酒、烈酒或葡萄酒)
habitual
[həˋbɪtʃʊəl]
a. 習慣的,慣常的
qualify
[ˋkwɑlə͵faɪ]
vt. & vi. (使)有資格
fussy
[ˋfʌsɪ]
a. . 挑剔的
discomfort
[dɪsˋkʌmfɚt]
n. . 不舒適,不適
relatively
[ˋrɛlətɪvlɪ]
adv. 相對地,蠻
mindful
[ˋmaɪdfəl]
a. 注意的,留神的
picky
[ˋpɪkɪ]
adj. 挑剔的
unbearable
[ʌnˋbɛrəb!]
a. 無法忍受的
overseason
vt. 過度調味(本文為動名詞用法)
overeat
[ˋovɚˋit]
vi. 吃太多,吃太飽
intensely
[ɪnˋtɛnslɪ]
adv. 強烈地
Practical Phrases
for one thing, ... for another, ...
 首先 / 一方面......,再者 / 另一方面......

For one thing, milk is good for your bones; for another, it’s rich in protein.

一方面,牛奶對骨骼有益;另一方面,它富含蛋白質。

be sensitive to / about sth
 對某事物很敏感,很容易因某事物而被 冒犯

Fred is sensitive to others’ remarks.
弗瑞德別人的話很敏感

Don’t mention Donald’s missing dog―he’s very sensitive about that.
不要提到唐納德走失的狗 — 他那件事非常敏感

accuse sb of...
 指控某人……

The clerk accused the customer of stealing.
店員指控這名顧客偷竊。

cover up sth / cover sth up
 掩蓋某事物

The police tried to cover up the truth.
警方企圖掩飾真相。

a taste bud
 味蕾(常用複數)
be mindful of
 注意⋯⋯

We have to be mindful of our actions and their consequences at all times. 
我們必須時刻注意我們的行為及其後果。

account for
 說明;對...負有責任;佔..(一定數量或比例)

India and China account for about half of global consumer demand for gold.
印度和中國了全球消費者黃金需求的一半左右。

take a stand
 採取堅定立場,表達意見

Everyone in the meeting was asked to take a stand on the issue.
每個參與會議的人都被要求針對該議題表達意見

However, this aspect of character is not necessarily negative.

介紹「部分否定」和「全部否定」的用法

針對所指人、事、物的一部分加以否定者,稱為「部分否定」:

※ 有些表整體含義的代名詞(如 all、both、every)與否定詞 not 並用時,便形成「部分否定」,且 not 要置於 all、both、every 之前。
Not both of my parents have retired.
並非我父母都已退休。

※ everybody、everyone、everything、everywhere 與否定詞 not 並用時,亦表部分否定。
You have to accept that not everything goes well in life.
你得接受人生中不是每件事都順利。

※ always、quite、completely、entirely、exactly、necessarily 等副詞與 not 搭配時,也有部分否定的意思。(本文用法)
Since your answer is not completely wrong, you still earn some points for this question.
因為你的答案不是全錯,這一題你還是有得一些分數。

對人事物的全部加以否定者,稱為「全部否定」:
※ 字詞本身含有絕對否定的意思,如:neither(兩者都不)、none(兩者以上都不)、no one / nobody(沒有人)、nothing(沒有任何東西或事物)等都表示全部否定。

No one saw Den at the office today.
今天沒有人在辦公室看到阿丹。

※ neither of 作主詞時,由於 neither 視為單數,按照嚴謹的文法,其後應搭配第三人稱單數動詞,但在非正式用法中,也可搭配複數動詞使用。
Neither of my gloves is / are dry.
我的兩隻手套都沒乾。

※ none of 後面接複數名詞或代名詞作主詞時,後面搭配單數動詞或複數動詞均可,但 none of 後面接不可數名詞時,其後則要用單數動詞。
None of my friends has / have seen this movie.
我的朋友中,沒人看過這部電影。

None of the news from the TV channel is reliable.
那個電視頻道的新聞都不可靠。


精選試題

The platform guarantees that none of its users’ information _____ used without their permission.

(A) are (B) be (C) is (D) being

 

答: C

    你可能有一些對吃很挑剔的朋友。他們偏好特定的食物,因而被稱為挑食的人。但是這一方面的性格不一定是負面的。挑食的人很常見,但研究顯示,僅有約 25% 的人口有資格被稱為超級味覺者。
  「超級味覺者」這一詞於 1990 年代由琳達.巴托舒克首次提出,她任職於佛羅里達大學,是一名味覺感知的研究員。顧名思義,超級味覺者是擁有敏銳味覺的人,能比其他人更強烈體會到食物中的味道。這代表非超級味覺者可能可以嚥下他們不喜歡的食物而沒有顯著的不適感,但超級味覺者卻覺得某些味道難以忍受。
    身為超級味覺者的狀態有科學證據支持。首先,超級味覺者比非超級味覺者有更多味蕾。此外,在五味 ── 苦、鹹、酸、甜和鮮 ── 中,超級味覺者對苦味特別敏感。這讓他們較不喜歡咖啡、黑巧克力和嚐起來有苦味的蔬果。

    不幸的是,飲食排除某些食物可能會有健康方面的缺點。更糟的是,超級味覺者可能會用鹽掩蓋苦味,這可能會導致過度調味和健康問題。
    不過,身為超級味覺者並非都是壞事。其一,很多超級味覺者會因為味道而遠離酒精和香菸。因此,他們相對較不可能變成慣性酗酒者或抽菸者。其二,超級味覺者通常會注意他們吃的東西,所以比較不太可能會吃太多。釐清你是超級味覺者或只是挑食的人,這可能可以在下次有人指責你對食物太挑剔時,幫你站穩立場。

1. 請根據本文資訊寫下 picky eaters(挑食者)或 supertasters(超級味覺者)。
特點 類型
更多味蕾 _____(a)_____
對苦味更敏感 _____(b)_____
占更多人口 _____(c)_____
答案: (a) supertasters (b) supertasters (c) picky eaters
2. 超級味覺者較不可能變成哪兩種人?
答案: Habitual drinkers and smokers.
3. 以下何者不是超級味覺者的特點?
(A) 他們每一餐都吃很少。
(B) 他們很注意自己吃了什麼。
(C) 他們無法感知全部五味。
(D) 他們可能會加一些東西來改變較苦食物的味道。
(E) 他們能注意到大多數人可能察覺不到的某些味道。
答案: A、C

 

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