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機會成本:讓你的選擇更理性 How Much? Understanding Opportunity Cost

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機會成本:讓你的選擇更理性 How Much? Understanding Opportunity Cost
我們每一次做選擇時,都是在權衡目前可取得的事物與必須放棄的另一樣事物的成本
>> 穿戴型運動裝置: 健康管理的小幫手? Current and Future Trends of Wearable Fitness Trackers

文章主講 賴世雄, Jennifer

Decisions, decisions! Every day we come across situations in which we have to make a choice. Economists have long realized that when we make decisions, we are considering our unlimited wants against limited time, money, services, and opportunities. Every time we choose, we weigh the cost of one item we can have now against something else we have to give up. Economists call this “opportunity cost,” and you don’t have to have a PhD in economics to benefit from knowing how the concept works and how it can improve our life choices.

決定,決定!每一天我們都會遇到需要做決定的情況。經濟學家長久以來都知道,當我們做決定時,我們考量的是無窮的慾望對上有限的時間、金錢、服務和機會。我們每一次做選擇時,都是在權衡目前可取得的事物與必須放棄的另一樣事物的成本。經濟學家稱之為「機會成本」,而你不需要擁有經濟學博士學位,也能從了解這個概念是如何運作以及它如何能改善我們生活中的選擇獲益。

economist [ iˈkɑnəmɪst ] n. 經濟學家
unlimited [ ʌnˈlɪmɪtɪd ] a. 無限制的
limited [ ˈlɪmɪtɪd ] a. 有限的
a PhD  博士學位

 

與「費用」相關的單字

  1. cost [ kɔst ] n. 成本;費用
  2. price [ praɪs ] n. 價格,價錢(價錢的昂貴或便宜要用 high 或 low 來修飾)
  3. value [ ˈvælju ] n. 價值
  4. charge [ tʃɑrdʒ ] n.(尤指對某一服務或活動的)費用∕收費
  5. fee [ fi ] n. 費用(指付給專業人員辦事的手續費、醫師的診察費、律師的辯護費,或其他的報名費、入場費等)
  6. fare [ fɛr ] n.(乘坐公車、計程車、火車、船隻、飛機等的)交通費
  7. rent [ rɛnt ] n. 租金
  8. rate [ ret ] n.(依標準級距的)費用∕價格
  9. toll [ tol ] n.(常用來指道路、橋梁等的)通行費

機會成本:讓你的選擇更理性 How Much? Understanding Opportunity Cost
(source: LMspencer / Shutterstock.com)

A simple choice between buying a dinner in an expensive restaurant and at a more affordable food stand can illustrate opportunity cost. The money you spend on the high-class restaurant meal is certain to be more than one at a food stand. If you choose the restaurant, you will enjoy a good meal and the enjoyment of fine dining. However, the extra money spent on that meal compared to the food from the food stand will be lost. You sacrifice a cheaper meal for a costlier one. This is an example of “opportunity cost.”

要在昂貴的餐廳還是在比較負擔得起的小吃攤買晚餐,這種簡單的選擇就能說明機會成本。你在高級餐廳吃一餐所花費的金額肯定會比在小吃攤多。如果你選擇了餐廳,你將能享受很棒的一餐和精緻餐飲帶來的愉快。不過,你將會損失比在小吃攤吃飯多花的那些錢。你為了更昂貴的一餐而犧牲較便宜的一餐。這便是「機會成本」的一例。

high-class [ ˌhaɪˈklæs ] a. 高級的
sacrifice [ ˈsækrəˌfaɪs ] vt. & n. 犧牲
at the sacrifice of...  犧牲⋯⋯
costly [ ˈkɔstlɪ ] a. 昂貴的

機會成本:讓你的選擇更理性 How Much? Understanding Opportunity Cost

Should you go to college? That would take at least four years plus the expenses for tuition, books, and other supplies. During that time you would probably not be earning any money. The lost opportunity of earning money is your opportunity cost of obtaining a college degree. Before you make your next purchase, whether for a house, car, college degree, or just a coffee, consider what you must forgo to make that purchase.

你該不該讀大學呢?那至少要花上四年的時間,加上學費、書籍和其他必需品的費用。在那段時間,你也可能賺不到任何錢。失去賺錢的機會便是你取得大學學位的機會成本。在你下一次購物之前,不管是房子、車子、大學學位或僅僅是一杯咖啡,先想想你花下那筆錢時必須放棄的東西吧。

tuition [ tuˈɪʃən ] n. 學費(不可數)
obtain [ əbˈten ] vt. 取得,獲得
forgo [ fɔrˈgo ] vt. 放棄

 

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內容皆出自《常春藤解析英語》與《常春藤生活英語》
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作者

Bruce E. Bagnell
Bruce E. Bagnell
常春藤解析英語雜誌資深外籍教師,中英文流利,曾為台灣大學資深教授,與賴世雄老師為多年好友。