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✶火雞面面觀 Unveiling the Bird behind Thanksgiving

Unveiling the Bird behind Thanksgiving
#動物 #節日
11/3 解析英語

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火雞面面觀 Unveiling the Bird behind Thanksgiving
感恩節在美國是家人團聚、一同歡樂以及 ── 最重要 的是 ── 大快朵頤的日子。
>> 【英文感謝用語大全】從「表達感謝」到「回覆感謝」一次學會!
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        Thanksgiving Day in the US is a day for family, fun, and, most importantly, feasting. No Thanksgiving spread would be complete without a massive roasted turkey at its center. This bird’s association with the holiday is so strong that it has become one of Thanksgiving’s main symbols and even spawned its nickname Turkey Day. What makes the turkey so iconic to this particular celebration?

        Unlike other popular livestock such as chickens, cows, or sheep, turkeys are exclusively native to North America. Although it’s unlikely that the first Thanksgiving feast between pilgrims and Native Americans included a turkey, these large fowl gained popularity as feast day centerpieces around the 19th century, when President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed Thanksgiving Day a national holiday. Around that time, it was a common sight to see large flocks of turkeys being herded down the roads in the weeks before Thanksgiving.

>> 美味巧克力竟是牠們的 毒藥? The Danger of Chocolate to Pets

        Though not the most intelligent of birds, turkeys do have other appealing features. They are known for their beautiful plumage and the “beard” of feathers that sprouts from their chests. Another distinctive feature of turkeys is their gobbling calls, although you might not know that only male turkeys make this sound. When it comes to flying, wild turkeys are actually quite good at it and can take to the air at up to 60 miles per hour.

        It might seem a pity that so many of these birds become Thanksgiving meals, but not all end up on the dinner table. Every year since 1989, the President of the United States has pardoned a turkey or two that are then allowed to live out their lives in peace. These lucky birds really have something to celebrate on Turkey Day.

 

1.What does the word “iconic” in the first paragraph most likely mean?

(A) Competitive.

(B) Representative.

(C) Sympathetic.

(D) Pessimistic.

2. What do we learn about the origins of having turkey on Thanksgiving?

(A)  The tradition started with the first Thanksgiving feast.

(B)  Native Americans used to eat turkey at their own feasts.

(C)  It was uncommon for people to see turkeys in North America.

(D)  Turkey became a popular Thanksgiving dish almost 200 years ago.

3. Why is Abraham Lincoln mentioned in the passage?

(A)  He created a new national holiday during his presidency.

(B)  He regularly herded turkeys before becoming president.

(C)  He made the turkey popular on Thanksgiving.

(D)  He was the first president to pardon a turkey.

4. Four people are talking about turkeys. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

(A)  “Gobbling calls are only made by male turkeys.”

(B)  “Turkeys are extremely smart, but they are unable to fly.”

(C)  “Only a turkey or two can be spared by the US President every year.”

(D)  “Turkeys are closely connected to Thanksgiving Day, which is also called Turkey Day.”

 

答案: 1.B 2.D 3.A 4.B

 

單字片語整理

Words in Use
pardon
[ˋpɑrdn]
vt. 原諒;赦免
n. 赦免
spread
[sprɛd]
vt. & vi. 伸展
vt. 攤開;塗抹
vi. & n. 蔓延,散播
association
[ə͵sosɪˋeʃən]
n. 協會;聯合
distinctive
[dɪˋstɪŋktɪv]
adj. 獨特的,特別的
proclaim
[prəˋklem]
vt. 宣稱;宣布,昭告
presidency
[ˋprɛzədənsɪ]
n. (總統的)職位;任期
herd
[hɝd]
n. 一群
vt. 放牧
feast
[fist]
vi. 大快朵頤
n. 宴會;饗宴
pilgrim
[ˋpɪlgrɪm]
n. . 朝聖者
livestock
[ˋlaɪv͵stɑk]
n. (統指馴養的牛、羊、馬等)牲口(為複數)
fowl
[faʊl]
n. . 家禽(指雞、鴨、鵝等動物)
iconic
[aɪˋkɑnɪk]
a. 代表性的,指標性的
centerpiece
[ˋsɛntɚ͵pis]
n. 最重要的部分
exclusively
[ɪkˋsklusɪvlɪ]
adv. 獨佔地;排外地;專有地
spawn
[spɔn]
vt. 使產生,使出現
plumage
[ˋplumɪdʒ]
n. (鳥的)全身羽毛
sprout
[spraʊt]
vi. 長出
gobble
[ˋgɑb!]
vi. 咯咯地叫(本文為現在分詞作形容詞用)
Practical Phrases
be native to + 地方
 原產於某地
= be unique to
= be indigenous to + 地方

Kiwi birds are native to New Zealand.
鷸鴕是紐西蘭的原產

gain (in) popularity
 漸受歡迎;開始流行

The director gained popularity after his film was nominated for an Academy Award.
那位導演在電影被提名奧斯卡獎之後便聲名大噪

take to the air
 飛行

The kid made a wish that he could take to the air and fly away.
這孩子許了個願,他希望自己能飛到空中然後飛走

live out one’s life
 (以某種方式或在某地)度過餘生/終老

After retiring, Mr. Brown decided to live out his life in the countryside.
退休後,布朗先生決定在鄉下度過餘生

 

turkey [ ˋtɝkɪ ] n. 火雞

Some poultry farmers raise turkeys and ducks as well as chickens.

一些飼養家禽的農民不僅養火雞,還養鴨子和雞。

以下介紹 turkey 的慣用語:

a. cold turkey 一勞永逸地(視作副詞)

Keith pledged to quit smoking cold turkey.

基斯發誓要一次就戒菸成功。

b. talk turkey 直接地談話

After several hours of negotiations, we decided it was time to talk turkey.

經過數小時的談判後,我們決定是時候不拐彎抹角了。

c. turkey shoot 輕易達到目的

The star player described the competition with the inexperienced opponents as a turkey shoot.

這位明星球員將這次與缺乏經驗的對手的比賽形容 為不費吹灰之力。

d. a (real / complete) turkey (戲劇、電影等)失敗之作;(人)傻瓜/笨蛋

That director’s movie turned out to be a real turkey.

那位導演的電影最後變成一部失敗之作。

Jimmy pretends that he knows everything, but in fact, he is a real turkey.

吉米假裝他什麼都懂,但實際上他真是個笨蛋。

 

 

No Thanksgiving spread would be complete without a massive roasted turkey at its center.

介紹「雙重否定」的用法

所謂「雙重否定」是指藉由使用兩個否定詞,在語意上 產生相互抵銷的效果,因而形成肯定的涵義,也就是「 負負得正」。

以下介紹常見的雙重否定用法:

no A would be complete without B

= A wouldn’t be complete without B

少了 B,A 就不算完整/圓滿/完美(本文用法)

No party would be complete without a great DJ.

= A party wouldn’t be complete without a great DJ.

少了優秀的 DJ,派對就不算完整。

※  not / never... without V-ing 每次⋯⋯必然⋯⋯

Tom never visits his aunt without bringing her flowers.

湯姆每次去看他阿姨時都會帶鮮花給她。

 can’t + V + without N/V-ing 沒有⋯⋯就不能⋯⋯

Brian can live without luxury goods, but he can’t live without books.

布萊恩的生活可以沒有奢侈品,但不能沒有書。

※  There is no... without... 沒有⋯⋯不⋯⋯,所有的⋯⋯都⋯⋯

There is no success without hard work and perseverance.

沒有努力和毅力,就不會成功。

 It is not uncommon / unusual (for sb) to V (對某人來說)做⋯⋯並非不尋常/是常有的事

It is not uncommon for college students to have student loans.

大學生有就學貸款是很普遍的事。


 精選試題 

The children can’t go out _____ asking their parents’ permission.

(A) for

(B) with

(C) to

(D) without

 

答案:D

 

 

感恩節在美國是家人團聚、一同歡樂以及 ── 最重要 的是 ── 大快朵頤的日子。一頓感恩節大餐的中央若少了 一道豐盛的烤火雞就不算完整。火雞與感恩節的聯繫如此緊 密,以至於牠已成為感恩節的主要標誌之一,甚至出現火 雞節這個俗稱。是什麼原因讓火雞成為這個特定節日的代表 呢?

與雞、牛或羊等其他受歡迎的家畜不同,火雞僅原產於 北美洲。雖然朝聖者和美洲原住民之間的第一個感恩節盛宴 不太可能有火雞,但在十九世紀左右,開始流行將這種大型 家禽作為盛宴日餐桌上的重頭戲,當時亞伯拉罕‧林肯總統 宣布感恩節為全國性節日。大約在那個時候,人們經常在感 恩節的前幾週看到大群大群的火雞在路上被趕著沿路而行。

火雞雖然不是最聰明的鳥類,但牠們確實有著其他吸引 人的特點。牠們以美麗的羽毛和胸前長出的羽毛「鬍鬚」而 聞名。火雞另一個與眾不同的特點是牠們咯咯的叫聲,不過 你可能不知道只有公火雞才會發出這種聲音。而說到飛行, 野生火雞其實很在行,牠們能以每小時六十英里的速度在空中飛行。

這麼多火雞成為感恩節大餐似乎有些可惜,但並非所有 火雞最終都會被端上餐桌。自 1989 年以來,美國總統每年 都會赦免一兩隻火雞,讓牠們平和地度過餘生。這些幸運的 鳥兒在火雞節這天真的有值得慶祝的事情。

 

1. 第一段中的 “iconic” 一字最有可能是什麼意思?

(A) 競爭的。

(B) 代表性的。

(C) 同情的。

(D) 悲觀的。

2. 關於感恩節吃火雞的起源,我們有什麼了解?

(A) 這一傳統始於第一次感恩節盛宴。

(B) 美洲原住民以前會在自己的宴會上吃火雞。

(C) 人們在北美洲很少看到火雞。

(D) 火雞將近兩百年前變成一道流行的感恩節大餐。

3. 本文中為什麼提到亞伯拉罕‧林肯?

(A) 他在任職總統期間創立了一個新的全國性節日。

(B) 他在成為總統之前經常趕火雞。

(C) 他讓火雞在感恩節大受歡迎。

(D) 他是第一位赦免火雞的總統。

4. 四個人正在談論火雞。下列哪一項敘述不正確?

(A) 「只有公火雞才會發出咯咯的叫聲。」

(B) 「火雞非常聰明,但牠們不會飛。」

(C) 「每年只有一兩隻火雞能被美國總統赦免。」

(D) 「火雞與感恩節密切相關,感恩節也被稱作火雞 節。」

 

 

本篇內容出自《常春藤解析/生活英語雜誌》,
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