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✶「鴉」倒眾生的鳥界天才 The Cleverness of Cunning Crows

The Cleverness of Cunning Crows
#閱讀測驗 #動物 #娛樂·新奇
6/7 解析英語

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「鴉」倒眾生的鳥界天才 The Cleverness of Cunning Crows
什麼動物是地球上最聰明的呢?很多人會想到大象和牠 們絕佳的記憶力,或是擁有龐大、複雜大腦的海豚
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中文翻譯(& 答案)

  What is the smartest animal on the planet? Many people think of elephants and their incredible memories or dolphins with their large, complex brains. One of the most surprisingly clever animals is a black bird seen almost everywhere in the world—the crow. These birds’ sophisticated brains are capable of performing amazing feats of memory and problem-solving.

  For one thing, crows can tell us apart and even remember their interactions with us. In one experiment, a scientist wore a caveman mask before trapping some crows to put bands on their legs. The crows were not pleased with being trapped, and after being released, they made loud, harsh sounds at the person in the mask. Over several years, anyone in a caveman mask triggered hostile responses from crows, whether they were previously captured or not. This showed that crows not only have excellent memory and facial recognition, but they can also pass on information to other members of their group.

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  The ways crows solve problems have also fascinated researchers. In Japan and California, crows have been observed reading traffic signals and dropping nuts on the road during red lights. After the light turns green and cars run the nuts over, the crows collect the cracked nuts during the following red light. New Caledonian crows also make and use hooks to get insects out of small holes. Another study reveals this species of crow possesses the ability to construct complex tools by combining smaller components. This capacity is primarily seen in apes and humans, making the crow’s behavior particularly exceptional.

  Next time you see a flock of crows, consider their amazing brains. It may even be in your interest to make friends with these clever black birds.

1.    What was the purpose of the caveman mask in the first experiment?

(A)  To help researchers hide from crows.

(B)  To make the crows in the experiment feel scared.

(C)  To see if crows could remember a certain face.

(D)  To find out whether crows liked modern people more.

 

2.    According to the passage, what do crows make use of traffic lights for?

(A)  Collecting nuts.

(B)  Finding hidden nuts.

(C)  Breaking shells of nuts.

(D)  Picking out high-quality nuts.

 

3.    Whose statement best matches the description of New Caledonian crows in the passage?

(A)

Ethan

The crows make tools to crack nuts open.

(B)

Taylor

The crows use sticks to build their nests.

(C)

Luna

The crows drop objects in holes to kill insects.

(D)

Maya

The crows bend a piece of wire into a curve to grab bugs.

 

4.    What does the author mean by “This capacity” in the third paragraph?

(A)  The tool-making skill.

(B)  The skill of gathering nuts.

(C)  The facial-recognition ability.

(D)  The ability to read traffic signals.

單字片語整理

Words in Use
apart
[əˋpɑrt]
adv. 分開
interest
[ˋɪntərɪst]
vt. 使......感興趣
n. 興趣;愛好
n. 利息[U]
cunning
[ˋkʌnɪŋ]
n. 狡猾,機靈
a. 狡猾的
incredible
[ɪnˋkrɛdəb!]
a. 難以置信的
interaction
[͵ɪntəˋrækʃən]
n. 互動(常與介詞 with 或 between 並用)
trap
[træp]
vt. 設陷阱捕捉
n. 陷阱;圈套,騙局,詭計
harsh
[hɑrʃ]
a. 嚴厲的
capture
[ˋkæptʃɚ]
vt. 逮捕;獲得,引起(注意)
n. 逮捕
vt. 刻畫,描繪
recognition
[͵rɛkəgˋnɪʃən]
n. 認出;承認,認可
observe
[əbˋzɝv]
vt. 觀察;遵守
crack
[kræk]
vi. 破裂
vt. 解開(密碼)
n. 裂縫
species
[ˋspiʃiz]
n. 物種(單複數同形)
capacity
[kəˋpæsətɪ]
n. 容量;能力;職位
primarily
[praɪˋmɛrəlɪ]
adv. 主要地
Extra Words
sophisticated
[səˋfɪstɪ͵ketɪd]
a. 世故的,圓滑的;(機器、系統)精密的
feat
[fit]
n. 壯舉,功績;業績
caveman
[ˋkev͵mæn]
n. 穴居人
trigger
[ˋtrɪgɚ]
vt. 引發
n. 扳機 ; 引發物
hostile
[ˋhɑstɪl / ˋhɑst!]
adj. 有敵意的,不友善的 ; (生長條件)惡劣的
fascinate
[ˋfæsn͵et]
vt. 使著迷
component
[kəmˋponənt]
a. 組成的
n. 要素;(機器、電腦等)零件
exceptional
[ɪkˋsɛpʃən!]
a. 卓越的;異常的,不尋常的
Practical Phrases
tell... apart
 分辨出……的不同

It is quite hard to tell these ducklings apart.
分辨出這些小鴨間的差異相當不容易。

pass on sth to
 傳遞某事物給⋯⋯

Can you pass on this message to Sarah when you see her?
你遇到莎拉時,能把這則訊息轉達給她嗎?

run... over / run over...
 輾過⋯⋯

The driver didn’t see the crab and accidentally ran it over.
那個駕駛沒看到那隻螃蟹而不小心輾過牠。

be in one’s interest(s) to...
 做⋯⋯對某人有益處

cleverness n. 聰穎,機靈

The detective’s cleverness in solving cases is impressive.

該警探解決案件的聰明才智讓人佩服。

clever  a. 聰明伶俐的(指在某個情況下靈活變通,想出應對方法)

Tim is clever and is even able to convince tough customers to make an order.

提姆很聰明伶俐,甚至能說服難纏的客戶下訂單。


cleverness 是從形容詞 clever 衍生而來的名詞,

以下介紹其他亦表「聰明的」之意的形容詞:

a. bright  a.(尤指小孩或年輕人)聰明的

The bright kid excelled in all subjects.

那個聰明的小孩各個科目都很擅長。

b. brilliant  a. 極其聰穎的

The brilliant scientist made remarkable discoveries in the field of physics.

那位聰明絕頂的科學家在物理領域有卓越的發現。

c. gifted  a. 天資聰穎的

The gifted pianist started playing at a professional level at a very young age.

那名天才鋼琴家年紀輕輕就開始以專業水準彈奏鋼琴。

d. intelligent  a. 聰穎的,智商高的(尤指天生思維敏捷的)

The intelligent student grasped new concepts quickly and effortlessly.

那位聰穎的學生很快就輕鬆理解了新概念。

e. wise  a. 有智慧的(尤指人生歷練豐富而變得有智慧)

Wise parents know when to step back and let their children learn from mistakes.

有智慧的父母知道何時該退一步,讓孩子從錯誤中學習。

This showed that crows not only have excellent memory and facial recognition, but they can also pass on information to other members of their group.

介紹對等連接詞片語 not only... but also... 的用法

★   not only... but (also)...  不僅⋯⋯而且⋯⋯

=     not merely... but (also)...

=     not only / merely... but... as well

※   not only... but also... 是由基本的對等連接詞 but 變化而來,可用以連接結構對等或文法功能相同的字詞或子句。

a.    連接字詞:

•  The movie is not only entertaining but (also) inspiring.

那部電影不僅有趣,而且很有啟發性。

b.    連接片語:

•  Reading not only expands our knowledge but (also) improves our language skills.

閱讀不僅可以拓展知識,而且能增進我們的語言技巧。

c.    連接子句:

  Chris was tired not only because he was busy but (also) because he had a long commute.

克里斯很累,不僅因為他很忙,也是因為他通勤時間很長。

※   not only... but (also)... 連接對等的主詞時,其後動詞要隨最近的主詞,即 but (also) 之後的主詞做變化。

•   Not only my dad but (also) my brothers like to play basketball.

不只是我爸愛打籃球,我的兄弟們也是。

※   not only... but (also)... 連接對等的主要子句時,not only 要置於句首,且由於 not only 視為否定副詞,故其後的第一個主要子句要倒裝;but also 僅為連接詞,故其後的第二個主要子句不須倒裝。

•  Not only did the team win the competition, but they (also) broke the record.

那支隊伍不只贏了比賽,他們還破了紀錄。

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

 精選試題 

Not only my parents but also my sister _____ to France several times.

(A) goes              (B) go

(C) has been      (D) have been

 答案:C

「鴉」倒眾生的鳥界天才

  什麼動物是地球上最聰明的呢?很多人會想到大象和牠們絕佳的記憶力,或是擁有龐大、複雜大腦的海豚。最令人驚奇的聰明動物之一是世界上幾乎隨處可見的黑鳥 ── 烏鴉。這些鳥類精密的大腦能夠驚人地發揮出記憶力和解決問題的能力。

  首先,烏鴉可以辨別我們,甚至會記得牠們與我們的互動。在一項實驗中,一位科學家戴上穴居人面具,然後捕捉一些烏鴉,在牠們的腿上綁上帶子。那些烏鴉對被抓住很不悅,被釋放後,牠們對戴著面具的人發出大聲且刺耳的聲音。幾年來,任何戴著穴居人面具的人都會引發烏鴉的敵意反應,無論牠們之前有沒有被捕捉過都一樣。這表明烏鴉不僅具有出色的記憶力和臉部辨識能力,牠們還可以將資訊傳遞給群體的其他成員。

  烏鴉解決問題的方式也讓研究人員深感興趣。在日本和加州,有人觀察到烏鴉看得懂交通號誌並會在紅燈時把堅果丟在道路上。燈號轉綠燈、汽車輾過堅果後,那些烏鴉會在下一次紅燈亮起時蒐集裂開的堅果。新喀鴉還會製作並使用鉤子將昆蟲從小洞中取出。另一項研究顯示,這一種烏鴉能夠組合較小的零件來建構出複雜的工具。這種能力主要是在猿類和人類身上看到,這使得這一種烏鴉的行為格外不凡。

  下次當你看到一群烏鴉時,想想牠們讓人歎為觀止的大腦。與這些聰明的黑鳥交朋友甚至可能對你有益處。

 

1.    在第一個實驗中,穴居人面具的用途是什麼?

(A)  幫助研究人員躲避烏鴉。

(B)  讓受試的烏鴉感到害怕。

(C)  看看烏鴉能否記得某個臉孔。

(D)  查明烏鴉是不是比較喜歡現代人。

 

2.    根據本文,烏鴉利用交通號誌燈做什麼事?

(A)  蒐集堅果。  (B)  尋找隱藏的堅果。

(C)  打破堅果殼。     (D)  挑選出優質的堅果。

 

3.    誰的說法最符合文中對新喀鴉的描述?

(A)  伊森:那些烏鴉製作工具來打開堅果。

(B)  泰勒:那些烏鴉用樹枝築巢。

(C)  露娜:那些烏鴉會把物品丟到洞裡以殺死昆蟲。

(D)  瑪雅:那些烏鴉將鐵絲彎成曲線來捕捉蟲子。

題解:     本文第三段提及,新喀鴉會製作並使用鉤子將昆蟲從小洞中取出,符合選項 (D) 敘述,故選之。

 

4.    作者在第三段所說的 “This capacity” 是什麼意思?

(A)  製作工具的技能。     (B)  採集堅果的技能。

(C)  臉部辨識能力。 (D)  讀懂交通號誌的能力。

答案:   1.    C    2.    C    3.    D    4.    A

回饋與建議

為了提供更好的閱讀體驗與學習感受,有任何建議或問題歡迎留言讓我們知道,感謝~
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