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現在分詞（Ving）：writing, doing, cleaning
「be + Ving」表示「進行」
I am/was/will be writing a letter. （我正在／當時在／將會在寫一封信。）
過去分詞（V-ed／PP）：written, done, cleaned
「have + V-ed」表示「已經」
I've written the letter.（我已經把這封信寫完了。）
Ving 為主動，翻譯成「令人…的」，V-ed 為被動，所以翻成「感到…的」。
像是 exciting 令人興奮的，excited 感到興奮的。
Ving 為進行，翻譯成「正在／即將…的」，V-ed 為完成，所以翻成「已經…的」
像是 retired 即將退休的，retired 已經退休的。
That is . I'm . 主詞補語，修飾主詞。
I found your . I found by your words. 受詞補語，修飾受詞。
其他的分詞也可以當成補語。同樣，Ving 為主動，V-ed 為被動。
came when he saw his father. Ving 當主詞補語。
I caught his girlfriend. Ving 當受詞補語。
I caught by her boyfriend. V-ed 當受詞補語。
少數 Ving 可以當成介詞來使用！
including 包括、excluding 除外
Everyone likes the movie, excluding/including John.
＝Everyone likes the movie, John excluded/included.
Considering his performance, Tom can make a good teacher.
＝His performance considered, Tom can make a good teacher.
regarding 關於、concerning 關於
Peter wrote an essay regarding/concerning/about pollution.
例如 John had nothing to do, and John felt bored. 可以改成 Having nothing to do, John felt bored.
在被省略主詞後方的動詞，要改成分詞，也就是 Ving 或 V-ed。
去掉連接詞（and, so, if 等等）。
David was tired out, so David went to bed early.
→ tired out, David went to bed early.
→ Tired out, David went to bed early.
如果動詞是 be 動詞，會改成 being 嘛，這個 being 可以省略、可以不省略，不省略的話更有「因為」的意思喔！
didn't work hard, so the old man was very angry.
→ His son not hard, the old man was very angry.
The teacher was not happy about the student's performance, so the teacher asked him to try again.
→ Being not happy about the student's performance, ....... X
→ Not (being) happy about the student's performance, ....... O
We were go picnicking tomorrow if weather permits.
→ We were go picnicking tomorrow, weather permitting.
If I am free, I'll do it.
→ If free, I'll do it.
Unless I am tired, I won't take a rest.
→ Unless tired, I won't take a rest.
Having done the work, I left early.
如果分詞片語在句首表示「更早發生的動作」，要使用 Having＋V-ed 完成式分詞片語。
When tired, I'll take a rest.
Though having little time left, I still managed to help David.
1. Many scientists doubt the safety of mineral water and encourage people to drink _____ water instead.
(B) the boil
2. The CEO's personal experience was itself a ______ story.
(D) to touch
3. ______ such a problem before, the CEO knows how complicated it can be and how long it will take to solve it.
(A) Dealt with
(B) Dealt in
(C) Having dealt with
(D) Being dealt with
4. Weather ______, the morning activity will be a hike in the mountains or, for those who are interested in fine art, a visit to the museum.
5. ______ that the boss was standing behind him, Peter kept speaking ill of him until he found his co-workers faces changed.
(A) Not knowing
(B) Now knew
(C) Didn't know
(D) Not to know
Ans: (D) (A) (C) (D) (A)