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✶首張太空垃圾罰單!Dish Network 遭罰 15 萬美元 US Company Receives Fine for Space Junk

US Company Receives Fine for Space Junk
#國外 #時事 #永續發展 SDGs
2/22 解析英語

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首張太空垃圾罰單!Dish Network 遭罰 15 萬美元 US Company Receives Fine for Space Junk
美國聯邦通訊委員會首次因一家公司不當處理廢棄衛星而 對其開罰。
>> 花蓮外海發生強烈7.2級地震 Strong 7.2 earthquake strikes off Hualien
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 新聞英語 

    For the first time, the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has fined a company for improper disposal of its defunct satellite. The satellite cable company Dish Network was fined US$150,000 because it failed to move an old satellite that was no longer in operation to a safe distance from others currently being used. The FCC had asked Dish Network to move one of its older satellites, EchoStar-7, 186 miles further from the Earth. However, the satellite had only advanced 76 miles before it ran out of fuel at the end of its operational life in 2022. The company admitted to its liability over the satellite and agreed to pay the fine.

 

    An FCC representative described this case as a landmark settlement. Dish Network violated the US Communications Act when it failed to move the satellite to a proper location for disposal. This ruling shows that the FCC has both the authority and capability to enforce important regulations regarding space debris, which has become a growing problem.

>> 5種塞車的英文說法一次搞懂。交通堵塞千萬別說 traffic was very crowded.

    It is estimated that over 10,000 satellites are currently orbiting the planet, with over half of them no longer in use. With so many abandoned objects in orbit, the risk of collision has greatly increased, posing a serious threat to active satellites and astronauts alike. To address this issue, the US government employs two methods for disposing of old satellites. The first option is for the objects to reenter the Earth’s atmosphere once they have exhausted their fuel. Upon re-entry, they break apart and burn up. The second option is to push these objects further into space into a junk orbit to lessen the risk of collision with active satellites.

1. Why was Dish Network fined1 by the FCC?
(A) It has too many satellites in orbit.
(B) The company refused to retire a satellite.
(C) One of its satellites collided with another.
(D) It did not relocate its satellite to the correct position.
2. What does the decision involving Dish
Network indicate?
(A) There are not enough rules regulating satellites.
(B) The US government should not control satellites.
(C) The FCC has the power to enforce rules in space.
(D) Dish Network was not at fault for the satellite's location.
3. What is one risk of having so many deserted satellites orbiting the Earth?
(A) Astronauts can be hit by junk from them.
(B) They prevent people from observing the moon.
(C) They might fall onto the Earth without warning.
(D) These satellites may lead to light pollution on the Earth.

 

 

答案: 1 D 2 C 3 A

單字片語整理

Words in Use
fine
[faɪn]
adv. 令人滿意地
adj. 優良的,漂亮的;晴朗的;細微的
n. & vt. 罰款
authority
[əˋθɔrətɪ]
n. 權威(不可數);權威人士(可數);有關當局(恆用複數)
federal
[ˋfɛdərəl]
adj. 聯邦的
regulation
[͵rɛgjəˋleʃən]
n. 規定,法規
enforce
[ɪnˋfors]
vt. 實施,執行
exhaust
[ɪgˋzɔst]
.vt. 使筋疲力盡;耗盡
n. 排出的氣體(不可數)
orbit
[ˋɔrbɪt]
n. 軌道
vt. 繞軌道運行
violate
[ˋvaɪə͵let]
vt. 違反
satellite
[ˋsæt!͵aɪt]
n. 衛星
landmark
[ˋlænd͵mɑrk]
n. 地標;重要,重大(僅置名詞前)
capability
[͵kepəˋbɪlətɪ]
n. 能力;軍事武力
debris
[dəˋbri]
n. 廢墟,殘垣斷瓦 (不可數)
liability
[͵laɪəˋbɪlətɪ]
n. (法律上的)責任,義務;債務,負債;麻煩
dispose
[dɪˋspoz]
vi. 處置(與介詞 of 並用)
disposal
[dɪˋspoz!]
astronaut
[ˋæstrə͵nɔt]
n. . 太空人
collision
[kəˋlɪʒən]
n. . 相撞;(不同文化等的)碰撞,衝突
collide
[kəˋlaɪd]
vi. 碰撞
abandoned
[əˋbændənd]
a. 廢棄的;被遺棄的
improper
[ɪmˋprɑpɚ]
adj. 不合適的,不適當的
defunct
[dɪˋfʌŋkt]
a. 不再使用的(正式用法)
ruling
[ˋrulɪŋ]
n. 裁決;裁定
Practical Phrases
It is estimated that...
 據估計……

It is estimated that 20,000 people will participate in the demonstration.

估計將有 2 萬人參與這次的示威遊行。

pose a threat to...
 對……造成威脅

Global warming is posing a threat to human survival.
全球暖化正人類生存構成威脅

dispose of...
 處理掉……

 Most countries have difficulties in disposing of 
nuclear waste. 
大部分的國家都面臨處理核廢料的困境。

collide with
 與⋯⋯碰撞
run out of...
 用完/光⋯⋯

We should buy some milk because we've run out of it.
我們應該買一些牛奶,因為家裡已經沒有了。

be in operation
 運作中;營運中

Ryan’s shop has been in operation since 1994.
萊恩的店從 1994 年營運至今。

admit to N/V-ing
  承認(做)⋯⋯
break apart
 解體,分崩離析

The boat broke apart when it hit a large rock.
這艘船撞到巨石後就解體了。

Federal Communications Commission (the FCC)
 聯邦通訊委員會(美國的一個政府機構,負責 規管和監督電信、廣播、無線通信和有線電視等通信領域 的事務)

 

burn up   燒起來;燒完,燒盡
burn 動詞三態為:burn, burned / burnt , burned / burnt

The dry grass in the field can easily burn up during a hot summer.
在炎熱的夏日裡,田野中的乾草很容易燃燒起來。


以下介紹表「燃燒」的相關英文片語:

a. burn down(...)   是指「(房屋等)被火燒燬、歸於塵土」的意思。
The old, abandoned house burned down to ashes in a matter of hours.
這棟廢棄的老房子在幾個小時內就被火燒成灰燼。
The electrical fire accidentally burned down the house.
意外的電氣火災燒毀了這棟房子。

b. burn off...  除了表「燒盡/燒掉⋯⋯」外,也可用在「燃燒卡路里」之類的語意中。
The farmer burned off dead vegetation to prepare for new spring crops.
農夫燒掉枯死的植被,以便在春季種植新作物。
Mia decided to go jogging to burn off the calories from her desserts.
蜜雅決定去慢跑以燃燒她從甜點中攝取的卡路里。

c. burn out 除了可用在表「(火)燒盡」、「(機器、引擎等因過熱)燒壞」外,也可以用來形容一個人「體力/能力耗盡」等。
The motor has burnt out due to prolonged overuse.
這個馬達因長時間的過度使用而燒壞了。

Andy will end up burning out if he continues working that hard.
安迪如果再繼續那麼拚命工作,最後會把自己的身體搞垮。

 

    美國聯邦通訊委員會首次因一家公司不當處理廢棄衛星而對其開罰。衛星有線電視公司 Dish Network 因未能將一顆不再運作的舊衛星移至與目前仍在使用的其他衛星保持安全距離,而被處以十五萬美元的罰款。聯邦通訊委員會已要求 Dish Network 將其較舊的 EchoStar-7 衛星從原本位置推進一百八十六英里(編按:亦即距離地球再遠一百八十六英里)。然而,該衛星在 2022 年運作生命結束、燃料用完前,僅移動了七十六英里就無法繼續前進。該公司承認對這顆衛星的處理負有責任並同意支付罰款。
    聯邦通訊委員會的一位代表敘述這個案例是一個意義重大的和解。Dish Network 未能將該衛星移至適當的位置進行處置,違反了美國通訊法。這一裁決顯示,聯邦通訊委員會不僅有權力,也有執行關於太空垃圾重要規則的能力,太空垃圾已成為一個日益嚴重的問題。
    估計目前有超過一萬顆衛星正環繞著地球,其中超過一半已經不再被使用。有這麼多被遺棄的物體在軌道上,大大增加了碰撞的風險,對運作中的衛星和太空人都構成了嚴重威脅。為了處理這個議題,美國政府採用兩種處理舊衛星的方法。第一個選項是讓這些物體一耗盡燃料就重返地球大氣層。當它們重返時,會瓦解並燃燒殆盡。第二個選項是將這些物體推送到更遠的太空垃圾軌道,以減少與運作中之衛星碰撞的風險。

1. 為什麼 Dish Network 會被聯邦通訊委員會罰款?
(A) 它有太多衛星在軌道上。
(B) 該公司拒絕讓一顆衛星退役。
(C) 它的其中一顆衛星與另一顆衛星相撞。
(D) 它未將其衛星遷至正確的位置。
2. 關於涉及 Dish Network 的決定暗示了什麼?
(A) 現在對衛星的規範不夠多。
(B) 美國政府不應該控制衛星。
(C) 聯邦通訊委員會有在太空中執行規則的權力。
(D) Dish Network 對該衛星的位置不負有責任。
3. 有這麼多廢棄衛星繞行地球的風險之一是什麼?
(A) 太空人可能會被它們產生的垃圾擊中。
(B) 它們會妨礙人們觀察月球。
(C) 它們可能會在無預警的情況下墜落到地球上。
(D) 這些衛星可能會導致地球上的光害。

 

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