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【多益必考文法】分詞構句怎麼用?分詞又是什麼?一篇就搞懂!

文末還有超擬真多益小測驗,幫助你釐清盲點喔!
MAR.15,2021
Joyce

分詞和分詞構句是多益必考的文法重點之一,但是常常有同學反應「搞不清楚」、「不知道怎麼用」,你是不是也有類似的疑問呢?就讓這篇文章,帶你全面了解分詞和分詞構句吧!

【多益必考文法】分詞構句怎麼用?分詞又是什麼?一篇就搞懂!
Photo by Ivan Samkov from Pexels

在這篇文章,你會學到 >>>

  • 分詞的功能和種類
  • 分詞當補語、介詞的用法
  • 分詞構句的規則和應用

文末還有超擬真多益小測驗,幫助你釐清盲點喔!

 

一、分詞的種類有哪些?

  • 現在分詞(Ving):writing, doing, cleaning

「be + Ving」表示「進行」

I am/was/will be writing a letter. (我正在/當時在/將會在寫一封信。)

  • 過去分詞(V-ed/PP):written, done, cleaned

「have + V-ed」表示「已經」

I've written the letter.(我已經把這封信寫完了。)

 

二、分詞的功能是什麼?

有的分詞呢,可以當成形容詞來用。

  • 表示主動/被動:

Ving 為主動,翻譯成「令人…的」,V-ed 為被動,所以翻成「感到…的」。

像是 exciting 令人興奮的,excited 感到興奮的。

  • 表示進行/完成:

Ving 為進行,翻譯成「正在/即將…的」,V-ed 為完成,所以翻成「已經…的」

像是 retired 即將退休的,retired 已經退休的。


有的分詞可以當成補語補語是「補充意義、增加資訊」的意思。

  • 你剛剛學到的「可作形容詞的分詞」都可以當成補語來使用!

That question is confusing. I'm confused.  主詞補語,修飾主詞。

I found your question confusing. I found myself confused by your words. 受詞補語,修飾受詞。

  • 其他的分詞也可以當成補語。同樣,Ving 為主動,V-ed 為被動。

The little boy came running when he saw his father. Ving 當主詞補語。

I caught Peter kissing his girlfriend. Ving 當受詞補語。

I caught Mary kissed by her boyfriend. V-ed 當受詞補語。


少數 Ving 可以當成介詞來使用!

  • including 包括、excluding 除外

Everyone likes the movie, excluding/including John. 

=Everyone likes the movie, John excluded/included.

  • considering 考慮到;鑑於……

Considering his performance, Tom can make a good teacher.

=His performance considered, Tom can make a good teacher.

  • regarding 關於、concerning 關於

Peter wrote an essay regarding/concerning/about pollution.


 

三、分詞構句又是什麼?

分詞構句的作用是簡化單句

例如 John had nothing to do, and John felt bored. 可以改成 Having nothing to do, John felt bored.

你發現兩句的差別了嗎?分詞構句使用的規則如下:

  • 主詞相同的話,要省略一個主詞。
  • 在被省略主詞後方的動詞,要改成分詞,也就是 Ving 或 V-ed。
  • 去掉連接詞(and, so, if 等等)。

來看幾個例句吧!

  • David was tired out, so David went to bed early.

Being tired out, David went to bed early.

Tired out, David went to bed early.

enlightened如果動詞是 be 動詞,會改成 being 嘛,這個 being 可以省略、可以不省略,不省略的話更有「因為」的意思喔!
  • His son didn't work hard, so the old man was very angry.

His son not working hard, the old man was very angry.

enlightened這個例句的主詞不同,是獨立分詞構句。獨立分詞構句不需要省略主詞,其他的規則和普通的分詞構句一樣。
  • The teacher was not happy about the student's performance, so the teacher asked him to try again.

Being not happy about the student's performance, ....... X

Not (being) happy about the student's performance, ....... O

enlightened變成否定分詞構句的時候,not 要放在前面喔!
  • We were go picnicking tomorrow if weather permits.

We were go picnicking tomorrow, weather permitting.

  • If I am free, I'll do it.

If free, I'll do it.

  • Unless I am tired, I won't take a rest.

Unless tired, I won't take a rest.

enlightenedonce、if、unless 後面如果句構是「主詞+be+adj./V-ed」、而且主詞相同的話,也可以做分詞構句的變化。
  • Having done the work, I left early.
enlightened如果分詞片語在句首表示「更早發生的動作」,要使用 Having+V-ed 完成式分詞片語。
  • When tired, I'll take a rest.
  • Though having little time left, I still managed to help David.
enlightenedwhen、while、though 也可以做分詞構句喔!

 

都學會了嗎?先來個小測驗檢視看看吧!

 

 多益文法小測驗——分詞篇 

1. Many scientists doubt the safety of mineral water and encourage people to drink _____ water instead. 
(A) boil
(B) the boil
(C) boiling
(D) boiled

2. The CEO's personal experience was itself a ______ story.
(A) touching
(B) touched
(C) touchy
(D) to touch

3. ______ such a problem before, the CEO knows how complicated it can be and how long it will take to solve it.
(A) Dealt with
(B) Dealt in
(C) Having dealt with
(D) Being dealt with

4. Weather ______, the morning activity will be a hike in the mountains or, for those who are interested in fine art, a visit to the museum.
(A) permits
(B) permit
(C) permitted
(D) permitting

5. ______ that the boss was standing behind him, Peter kept speaking ill of him until he found his co-workers faces changed.
(A) Not knowing
(B) Now knew
(C) Didn't know
(D) Not to know

(答案在最下面唷)

如果答錯,就回到上面的重點整理再複習一次吧!覺得這篇文章實用的話,不妨存下來,方便你一再複習~

也可以點下面這些文章,了解更多多益相關資訊 >>>

多益閱讀攻略,看完再也不會寫不完,答題又快又精準!(下篇)

【多益必考文法】動名詞要怎麼用?remember 是接 to V 還是 Ving?一篇就搞懂!

多益必考180 個單字,你背下來了嗎?(名詞篇)

 

Ans: (D) (A) (C) (D) (A)

作者介紹

Joyce
Joyce
學習英文,不僅有益生涯發展,更能開闊你的視野、培養更廣袤的世界觀:)對學習專欄有任何疑問或想法,歡迎來信:service@ivy.com.tw